نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی
1 استاد گروه مدیریت دولتی، دانشکده مدیریت، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.
2 دانشجوی دوره دکتری مدیریت دولتی گرایش خط مشی گذاری عمومی، دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران، ایران.
3 دکتری مدیریت کارآفرینی، مدرس دانشگاه.
4 دانشجوی دوره دکتری مدیریت دولتی گرایش خطمشیگذاری عمومی، دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران، ایران.
عنوان مقاله [English]
In this research, the implementation of the general policy "issuance of guarantees for cooperatives" has been complicated and analyzed. Using the Delphi method, the components related to the effectiveness of the implementation of this policy have been calculated using the opinions of 20 relevant experts. and then the level of realization of each is investigated and the complications are identified. The identified complications are categorized in seven areas including: technological infrastructure, customer and market, human resources, agencies, structure, processes and strategy, the most frequent of which are related to It is human power, customer and market.
After the formulation of the policy, the implementation is formed and the correct implementation of the policies leads to the general satisfaction of the citizens and the increase in the welfare level and the strengthening of the government. It should be noted that the incomplete implementation of policies should not be attributed only to the implementation phase and the trustees of this phase, many issues and problems go back to the drafting phase and its trustees. Perriman and Wildavsky also consider the biggest problem in the implementation of the policy of not paying attention to special provisions in its formulation stage (Denhart, 2017). Cooperative Investment Guarantee Fund, as one of the government organizations, for the development of the cooperative sector and as a subsidiary organization. The Ministry of Labor Cooperation, Social Welfare has been established. Complications of the implementation of general policies used in this fund are of great importance. In this project, the main policy of the fund as "issuance of guarantees for cooperatives" has been complicated.
The main mission of the fund is to help the development of the activity and investment of the cooperative sector by providing guarantees. In 2015, the fund's statutes were amended and up to 30% of the excess credits to small and small non-cooperative natural and legal entities up to 50 people. (S.M.E) employee can also be assigned. Considering that more than 10 years have passed since the implementation of its main policy, i.e. the issuance of guarantees for the cooperative and private sectors, therefore, finding complications in the implementation of the said policy in order to identify and fix the points Weaknesses and offering programs to improve its performance are very important
Materials and Methods
In this research, the Delphi method was used to identify the factors affecting the implementation of the guarantee policy. The members of the Delphi panel for this research were non-probability sampling and a combination of targeted or judgmental and chain (snowball) methods. were selected, which include 20 experts and managers with experience in the field of issuing guarantees of the Cooperative Investment Guarantee Fund. In the next step, using the theoretical foundations and research literature, the dimensions and components related to the policy were extracted, categorized, refined and compiled in a preliminary form, which was a preliminary closed-answer and open-answer questionnaire simultaneously to evaluate the opinion of experts in It was decided by the members of the expert panel. The relevant questionnaire was given to the panel members in the first round to collect opinions and suggestions, in the second round to identify the components, and in the third round to determine the importance of each of the components. The components were determined.
Discussion and Results
The identified components and indicators have been measured and the vulnerable points and weak points of each have been identified. The components include return on equity, coverage ratio of cooperatives, growth rate of customer satisfaction, share of capital in added value, productivity of total capital. Validation efficiency, process efficiency, approved cases efficiency, guarantee issuance efficiency, guarantee issuance rate, guarantee issuance to approval ratio, default rate, claims collection efficiency, total human resource productivity (cost) and fee growth ratio. Finally, after the evaluation results are determined, again through questionnaires and interviews with the same 20 managers and expert employees, the issues and complications related to each field, in the form of one of the steps of the Delphi method and based on the opinions and views of experts It has been identified. Finally, 15 complications in 7 groups were identified as the main complications. 7 groups include: strategy, customer and market, structure, organizational processes, human power, technological infrastructure and agencies.
The biggest complication in the fund is related to the process and strategy departments. In the department of organizational processes, the most important complication is the speed in carrying out service processes, and a large part of this issue, including during the legal procedures of providing collateral, is beyond the authority of the fund and It is a kind of external factor, and the other part is affected by the technological infrastructure of service provision, which needs to be strengthened. Considering the development of electronic government and the movement of organizations in this direction, the processes of the fund should be continuously reviewed and the processes that qualify should be made electronic in the shortest possible time. . In strategic management activities, two points are important, firstly, pay attention to the new structural conditions and then pay attention to the indicators in accordance with the operating budget. In the structure department, the most important complication has been the incompatibility of the organizational structure and the combination of human resources with the fund's development plans. which has been defined by the follow-ups of the new organizational structure and positions that should be operationalized. The complications of the human resource department are caused by the lack of empowerment programs, performance evaluation, and the connection between the reward system and the performance evaluation. For this, it is necessary to develop a systematic reward system based on objective and subjective indicators. In the technological infrastructure, a single information bank should be created and systems should be integrated. Also, the possibility of accessing the systems during remote work. Provide, upgrade the existing system and use up-to-date software and technology in this field. Complications in the market and customer sector are caused by the lack of sufficient awareness of the beneficiaries, the target community and other inter-sectoral institutions of the fund's services. problems can be solved in the form of written marketing programs. In addition, this issue is also related to the need to increase the fund's capital, because the fund can cover the risk of the target society based on the amount of fixed capital. In the field of agencies, reorganization and comprehensive evaluation are required. It is their performance because agents are the wing of the fund and the bridge of communication with customers. In this regard, the evaluation indices of agencies should be reviewed first and the agencies should be evaluated based on accurate and relevant indicators.