تأثیر عوامل زمینه‌ای و تفاوت‌های فردی بر کار عاطفی با تبیین نقش تعدیلگر هوش هیجانی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرمان، ایران.

2 استادیار دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، کرمان، ایران.

3 دانشیار دانشکده مدیریت و اقتصاد، دانشگاه شهید باهنر، کرمان، ایران

10.22111/jmr.2020.34942.5135

چکیده

    باوجود تلاش محققان برای درک چرایی و نحوۀ بروز و مدیریت هیجانات توسط مدیران در محیط کار و به عبارتی بررسی کار عاطفی آن‌ها با کمک چارچوب‎ های مفهومی متنوع، به نتایج ضدونقیضی به‌خصوص در مورد اقدام عمیق دست یافته­اند. از این رو هدف کلی تحقیق حاضر تبیین کار عاطفی با توجه به نقش عوامل زمینه­ای، تفاوت­های فردی و هوش هیجانی می ­باشد. روش تحقیق توصیفی- همبستگی و از نوع معادلات ساختاری است. جامعه آماری این پژوهش را مدیران مؤسسات آموزش عالی شهر کرمان تشکیل می‌دهند. با استفاده از فرمول کوکران، حجم نمونه برای انجام این پژوهش 203 نفر تعیین شد. نمونه‌گیری به روش تصادفی طبقه ­ای انجام شد و برای جمع‌آوری داده‌ها از پرسشنامه استاندارد آلن و همکاران (2014)، مارتین و همکاران (2003)، پتریدس (2009) و یانگ و چانگ (2009) استفاده شد. پایایی و روایی ابزار تحقیق با محاسبه آلفای ‌کرونباخ، پایایی ترکیبی و میانگین واریانس تبیین شده ارزیابی و تأیید شد و روایی محتوایی پرسشنامه‌ها توسط استادان و خبرگان آشنا به موضوع تأیید شد. میزان روایی 85/0 و میزان پایایی 93/0 به دست آمده است. داده‌ها پس از جمع‌آوری، با نرم‌افزار آماری SmartPLS تحلیل شد. نتایج نشان داد عوامل زمینه­ ای و تفاوت­های فردی بر کار هیجانی تأثیر مثبت و معناداری دارند و هوش هیجانی در این ارتباط نقش تعدیل­ کنندگی دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects Of The Contextual Factors And The Individual Differences On Emotional Labor By Explaining The Moderating Role Of Emotional Intelligence

نویسندگان [English]

  • Zahra Kooshan 1
  • Alireza Manzari Tavakoli 2
  • zahra Zeinaddiny Meymand 2
  • Najmeh Hajipour abaee 2
  • Mehdi Ebrahiminejad Rafsanjani 3
1 PhD. Student, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran
2 Corresponding Author- Assistant Professor, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Kerman Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kerman, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Management and Economic, Shahid Bahonar University, Kerman, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Abstract
Emotional labor, first introduced by Hochschild (1983), has attracted interest from researchers. Despite researchers' efforts to understand why and how emotions managed by managers in the workplace, in other words, by examining their emotional labor with the help of various conceptual frameworks, they have achieved the contradictory results, especially on deep action. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore emotional labor considering the role of contextual factors, individual differences and emotional intelligence.
Introduction
Emotional labor can have a significant impact on the growth of employees and managers (Wolters and Gonzalez, 2008). In addition to gaining knowledge and scientific skills from their managers, the employees are increasingly affected by their emotions as part of their socio-emotional development and react to them according to their understanding of these emotions (Konishi & et al, 2010). On the other hand, managers are influenced by the behaviors of their employees and experience different emotions in the workplace that can affect both themselves and their employees (Frenzel & et al, 2009; Fredrickson, 2001). According to studies conducted on emotions in work environments, people do not act passively against their emotions and seriously modify them (Gross, 2015). According to previous research, managers experience a variety of emotions during work, from pleasure to empathy and anger and compassion, and thus these emotions affect different aspects of their lives (Sutton & Wheatley, 2003; Sutton, 2005; Frenzel & Stephens, 2013; Chang, 2009, 2013). Therefore, this study used findings from the previous research with the aim of explaining the existing knowledge about the emotional work of managers, examined the effect of contextual factors and individual differences on the emotional labor of managers. The role of emotional intelligence modulator in these relationships is also considered.
Case study
The study population consisted of managers of higher education institutions in Kerman. The sample size was 203 managers. the Cochran's formula was used to determine the sample size, so that the questionnaire was distributed among managers.
Theoretical framework
Emotional labor was originally defined as the management of feeling to create a publicly observable facial and bodily display and is commonly used to describe how individuals modify their emotional expressions from their truly experienced emotions for communicative purposes. According to Hochschild (1983), surface acting referred to when individuals externally expressed an emotion that differed from their experienced emotions without modifying their internal feelings, as evidenced by amplifying, faking, or suppressing an emotion (Côté et al. 2013; Grandey 2000). In contrast, the term deep acting referred to internalizing the desired emotion such that the emotions expressed are more consistent with felt emotions. Ashforth and Humphrey as well as Morris and Feldman (1996) later included genuinely expressing emotions as a third emotional labor strategy, arguing that although emotional dissonance the discrepancy between expected and experienced emotions may be low, cognitive effort is nonetheless required to express internally felt desired emotions in a contextually appropriate manner.
Methodology
According to the applied purpose and in terms of data collection, this was descriptive research of correlation type and specifically modeling structural equations. In order to collect the data on the theoretical foundations and the research literatures such as paper, existing dissertations and research related to the subject, Persian and Latin books and internet search were studies. Field research in this study included data collection using questionnaire. The questionnaire used in this study includes 24items. A 5-point Likert scale was provided with response choices ranging 1 for completely agree to number 5 for the option completely disagree. To test the hypotheses, the structural equation modeling technique was used using PLS software.
Discussions and findings
The center of control of the personality index is the main individual differences. People with internal control are social, enthusiastic, energetic and optimistic. Because these people tend to have positive emotions and are satisfied when working with groups, they may be more emotional as a result of ensuring that teams are stable. Contextual factors include a person's ability to tolerate stressful stimuli and stressors. These people have confidence in themselves, are stable and calm. One of the obstacles that hinders emotional labor is the fear of managers that others may take advantage of this situation after they share their emotional feelings with employees. Hence, the fear of these people causes them to mainly avoid expressing emotions in order to maintain their exclusive position. Emotional intelligence is associated with positive attitudes toward others because people with high emotional intelligence are intelligent and they are curious about the inner and outer worlds and are more experienced in their lives. Thus, people with high emotional intelligence may be more interested in looking for emotional relationships with employees. A high level of emotional intelligence in a person can bring more emotional labor. Therefore, it is recommended that measures be taken to strengthen emotional intelligence in higher education institutions, because the presence of emotional intelligence is high, which causes the underlying factors and individual differences of managers to lead to a high level of emotional labor.
Conclusion
In this study, a model of managers' emotional labor considering the role of contextual factors, individual differences and emotional intelligence was examined. The theoretical foundations of all four concepts were examined and the conceptual model of the research was developed. The questions of the questionnaire were examined by professors and experts familiar with the subject and their validity was confirmed as 0.85. The results showed the confirmation of the research hypotheses. To study the research hypotheses, the significant effects of contextual factors and individual differences on emotional work was confirmed. Also, the role of emotional intelligence modulator in these relationships was confirmed.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Emotional labor
  • contextual factors
  • Individual differences
  • Emotional Intelligence
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