عنوان مقاله [English]
The aim of the current research is to present a model of dual-use technology policies in Iran. Thus the main problem to be stated and explained in this research is to identify the aforementioned policies and then to prioritize their implementation. In the present study, the relevant literature was explored using a mixed research design (qualitative-quantitative) through library studies, and the application of theoretical sampling method, related sources were identified and then Using the content analysis method, first resulted in 85 basic themes, then 58 organizing themes and finally 21 comprehensive themes in the form of dual-purpose technology deployment policies. In the second stage, using the method of performance importance analysis using the opinion of experts, the identified policies were prioritized. The statistical population includes experts in the field of military and civilian industries, from which 22 people were selected as experts in this field using the snowball method. To receive the opinions of experts, the extracted indicators in the form of performance importance questionnaire along with a summary of goals, questions and explanations were emailed to the experts and they were asked to express their opinions about the importance and performance of each indicator. And the average of experts' opinions was considered as the final coefficients. In the second step, the identified policies were prioritized by using the importance-performance analysis. The findings suggest that the policy "agilization of organizational structure and reduction of administrative bureaucracy of the military sector ranked as the first priority, and 'increasing the level of internal production of military equipment and reducing the dependence on abroad", despite having being the most important policy from the experts’ perspective, ranked as the last priority for concentration and improvement due to the good status of Iran in this field.
Today's dynamic and changing world has required the change for the military industries. These changes have led to that opportunities and threats be emerged for defense industries. The challenges below reflect the situation face by the defense industries: The need to maintain the capacity of restructuring in case of occurrence of future threats; The need to be competitive in the commercial sector through development and introducing the product more rapidly; Increasing the global access to advance defense technologies.
Given the above-mentioned challenges and the high costs of defense technologies and studies on the one hand and the budget cuts in the centralized economic systems on the other hand, defense industries require taking serious measures in order to deal with this problem. One of these measures is to transfer and share the defense expenditures with the common needs of society.
A case study is Sadra Marine Industries Company.
The dual-use policies help the defense contractors and commercial producers to control costs, improve technology and shorten the time it takes to develop new products. Considering the reduction in the defense budget, public policymakers are attempting to save industrial jobs, technology, and infrastructure in the defense industrial base by converting them into a flexible, commercial infrastructure capable of supporting both defense and non-defense needs
In this research, a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used. First, the required data were collected through a review of library resources. Then, the dual-use policies were identified by applying the thematic analysis method. During the thematic analysis process, firstly 85 basic themes, secondly 58 organizing themes and finally 21 global themes were identified. In the next stage, these policies were examined and evaluated by using an importance-performance analysis.
Discussion and Results
The first priority is to focus on the improvement of: Agilization of organizational structure and reduction of administrative bureaucracy of the military; Investment and facilitation of financial transactions and payments in the dual-use area (including: encouraging companies to invest in this area, establishing a fund for venture investment, and cooperation with the well-known institutions in order to set up investment funds for science and technology, etc; Enactment of incentive laws and providing various facilities for the civilian sector in order to engage in the dual-use area; Identification, recruitment and education of talents in the area of dual-use and innovation through connection with universities, providing grounds for temporary cooperation, partial-time projects, etc; Providing stimulus for the military sector’s personnel and managers to deploy dual-use policies; Instruction and communication in order to foster a recognition of the importance and awareness about the dual-use plans by senior military managers and personnel; Establishing well-defined centers, mechanisms and processes of technology transfer and innovation in the area of dual-use technologies. The second priority is: Supporting dual-use studies and investigations; Dual-using the equipment with high performance, high importance, surplus capacity, high added value, high technology, capital-intensive, having export market, lacking an alternative, and required for future of the military and civilian industries; Providing stability in managing the different military and civilian sectors; Increasing the level of internal production of military equipment and reducing the dependence on abroad.
The third is: Cooperation and openness of the military sector with/to the civilian sectors; Establishing the Department of Codification of Laws and Regulations, standardization and coordination and laws binding and evaluating the military units and their collaborating civilian companies, intellectual property in the area of dual-use in military industries and legislative bodies; Increasing the the science and technology level, capability and risk coverage of civilian sector in order to allow for the satisfaction of the military sector’s needs with the priority of small and medium-sized companies; Developing a system for identification and screening of the end user (final consumer) and the consumption place; Extraction and announcement of the capabilities and needs of civilian and military sectors for dual-use; Promoting competition between the civilian and military companies and sectors in the dual-use area. The forth priority is: Establishing a strategic alliance and win-win relationships with friendly countries and the large companies involving in the maritime and military industries; Concentration on a group of similar and common technologies in the military and civilian sectors; Integration of the complex systems in the military sector for dual-use purposes; Privatization in the military sectors.
The current research attempted to extract a model of dual-use technology policies in Iran by using the expert opinion. The findings suggest that from among the 21 global policies, the policy "agilization of organizational structure and reduction of administrative bureaucracy of the military sector ranked as the first priority, and 'increasing the level of internal production of military equipment and reducing the dependence on abroad", despite having being the most important policy from the experts’ perspective, ranked as the last priority for concentration and improvement due to the good status of Iran in this field.