عنوان مقاله [English]
The present study aims to investigate the effect of transformational leadership on job burnout through the mediating role of psychological capital among teachers. This study is applied and correlational and is specifically implemented based on Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). The statistical population of the study consists of all male primary school teachers in the city of Zahedan in the academic year of 2019-2020 who were 512 people among whom 217 were selected as the sample using Krejcie and Morgan table by stratified random sampling method. In this study, Bass and Avolio Transformational Leadership Standard Questionnaire (1997), Luthans’ Psychological Capital Questionnaire (2007), and Maslach Burnout Inventory (1981) were used. Content validity was used to determine validity of the research tools, and Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used to determine reliability, which was estimated to be 0/72, 0/83, and 0/82, respectively. Data analysis was done using SPSS 22 and LISREL 8/80 software programs. The study results showed the negative and significant effect of transformational leadership and psychological capital on job burnout. There was also a positive and significant effect of transformational leadership on psychological capital. The mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between transformational leadership and job burnout of teachers was also confirmed.
In recent years, the job burnout phenomenon has been accepted by researchers and those involved in human resource productivity. Job burnout analysis is a symptom that arises as a result of chronic stress and is one of the fundamental factors in decreasing the efficiency and waste of human resources. Service occupations employees, including teachers, are more likely to develop the syndrome than other occupational groups. One of the factors that cause job burnout in employees of organizations is leadership style. Applying management methods that lead to appropriate changes in the workplace can meaningfully reduce employees' sense of job burnout. By using employee incentives, meeting individual needs, and inspiring them, transformational leaders can provide the necessary infrastructure for the growth and prosperity of an organization and the personal development of the workforce. By using transformational leadership behaviors, managers can increase self-efficacy, hope, optimism, and resilience (psychological capital) among their employees, thereby harmful consequences of job burnout such as absenteeism, decreased work capacity, reduced workload, dissatisfaction, and loss of emotional resources. So, the current study aims to investigate the effect of transformational leadership on job burnout with the mediating effect of psychological capital within a causal pattern.
The statistical population of this study consists of all primary school male teachers in the city of Zahedan in the academic year of 2019-2020 who are 512 people among whom 217 ones were selected as thesample through stratified random sampling method.
Materials and Methods
The present study is applied in terms of purpose and descriptive in terms of data collection. Bass and Avolio Transformational Leadership Standard Questionnaire (1997) was used to collect the data; it examines four dimensions of idealized influence, intellectual stimulation, inspirational motivation, and individual considerations, and it is developed in 20 items based on five-point scale. To measure psychological capital, Luthans’ Individual Psychological Capital Questionnaire (2007) including 24 items was used in which six items have been developed for each of the components of psychological capital including self-efficiency, hope, optimism, and resilience. Finally, to measure occupational burnout, Maslach Burnout Inventory (1981) with 22 questions and three components of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and sense of self-efficacy was used. Content validity method was used to determine validity of the research tools and Cronbach’s alpha method was used to measure reliability of the questionnaires. Cronbach’s reliability coefficient for each of the questionnaires of transformational leadership, psychological capital, and occupational burnout was estimated as equal to 0/72, 0/83, and 0/82, respectively, which indicate favorable reliability of the questionnaires. Also, in this research, structural equation modeling method has been used to test the research model and hypotheses.
Discussion and Results
Four hypotheses were extracted within the framework of the proposed model:
1. Transformational leadership has a significant effect on psychological capital.
The path coefficient of transformational leadership to psychological capital is 0.25, and t significance test also showed that this value is statistically significant at confidence level of 0.95 (t-value= 2.52).
2. Transformational leadership has a significant effect on occupational burnout.
The path coefficient of transformational leadership to occupational burnout is -0.31 which is a negative coefficient, and t significance test also showed that this value is statistically significant at 99% confidence level (t-value= -3.24).
3. Psychological capital has a significant effect on occupational burnout.
The path coefficient of psychological capital to occupational burnout is -0.28 which is a negative coefficient, and t significance test also showed that this value is significant at 99% confidence level (t-value= -2.91).
4. Transformational leadership has a significant effect on occupational burnout with the mediating effect of psychological capital.
In addition to the direct effect, transformational leadership through psychological capital also affects occupational burnout with a coefficient of effect of -0.07 at 95% confidence level (t-value= -2.11).
The results show that transformational leadership has a negative and significant effect on job burnout. Psychological capital also plays a mediating role in this relationship.
By applying transformational leadership behaviors as well as increasing psychological capital of teachers, managers can reduce their occupational burnout.