بررسی و تبیین عوامل مؤثر بر کارآفرینی منابع انسانی در شرکت‌های کوچک و متوسط منطقه آزاد چابهار

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری تخصصی، گروه مدیریت ، واحد امارات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار، گروه مدیریت و اقتصاد، واحد علوم تحقیقات، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار،دانشکده مدیریت و اقتصاد، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان، زاهدان، ایران

4 دانشیار، گروه علوم تربیتی، واحد لامرد، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، لامرد، شیراز، ایران

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضر بررسی و تبیین عوامل مؤثر بر کارآفرینی منابع انسانی در شرکت‌های کوچک و متوسط سازمان منطقه آزاد چابهار می‌باشد. پژوهش از نظر هدف کاربردی- توسعه­ای و از نظر روش، آمیخته (کیفی و کمی) است. در مرحله کیفی با استفاده از مطالعات کتابخانه­ای و نظرسنجی از کارشناسان پرسشنامه پژوهش تهیه و در مرحله کمی با استفاده از پرسش­نامه تدوین شده داده­هایی از جامعه مورد نظر جمع­آوری گردید. جامعه آماری پژوهش حاضر، شامل کلیه کارکنان شرکت‌های کوچک و متوسط منطقه آزاد چابهار در سال 98 به تعداد 190 نفر است. برای انتخاب نمونه تحقیق از روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی ساده مبتنی بر جدول تصادفی استفاده شده است و با استفاده از فرمول کوکران 127 نفر به‌عنوان حجم نمونه انتخاب گردید. پایایی پرسش­نامه با ضریب آلفای کرونباخ (880/0) مورد تایید قرار گرفت. به‌منظور تجزیه‌وتحلیل داده‌های گردآوری شده، از آمار توصیفی و استنباطی استفاده شده است. در سطح آمار توصیفی از جداول توزیع فراوانی، درصد استفاده شده و در سطح آمار استنباطی، پس از گردآوری اطلاعات برای تحلیل سؤالات پژوهش از آزمون تی تک نمونه‌ای استفاده شده است. کلیه تجزیه‌وتحلیل آماری با استفاده از نرم‌افزار23 spss انجام گرفت. نتایج حاصل از پژوهش نشان می‌دهد که: کلیه عوامل مؤثر بر کارآفرینی منابع انسانی در شرکت‌های کوچک و متوسط منطقه آزاد چابهار با میانگین 0712/3 از وضعیت متوسطی برخوردار هستند و همچنین از میان عوامل مؤثر بر کارآفرینی منابع انسانی، عوامل اجتماعی نسبت به سایر عوامل با میانگین 314/3 از وضعیت مطلوب­تری برخوردار می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Investigating and Explaining Factors Affecting Human Resource Entrepreneurship in Small and Medium Enterprises of Chabahar Free Zone

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abdolrazaq Damani 1
  • Afsaneh Zamanimoghadam 2
  • Habibollah Salarzehi 3
  • Seyed Ahmad Hashemi 4
1 PhD Student, Department of Management, Emirates Branch, Islamic Azad University, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
2 .Associate Professor, Department of Management and Economics, Research Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Department of Management and Economics, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
4 Associate Professor, Department of Educational Sciences, Lamerd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lamerd, Shiraz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Abstract
The purpose of this study is applied and descriptive-correlative in nature and method and has investigated and explained the factors affecting human resource entrepreneurship in small and medium enterprises SME of Chabahar Free Zone Organization.The statistical population in this study is all employees of small and medium sized companies of Chabahar Free Zone Organization in year 2019 which is 190 persons. Using Cochran formula, 127 people were randomly selected and participated in this study. A researcher-made questionnaire was used to measure five variables (economic, social, cultural, laws and government and political system). Reliability of the questionnaire was determined using Cronbach's alpha and its validity was determined by convergent validity. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling techniques have been used to answer the research hypotheses using Partial Least Square (PLS). The results of structural equations show that all factors have positive and significant effect on human resource entrepreneurship. The coefficient of determination (R2) indicates that all five variables of cultural, economic, governmental and political, social system and laws and regulations explained 0.782 of the variations of human resource entrepreneurship variables. Regarding beta value, social factors had the highest share (0.349) and laws and regulations had the least effect (0.122).
Introduction
One of the issues that all organizations pay attention to is the issue of human resources (Hamel, 2013: 24). In today's world, the most important factor of development and progress is the human resources of any organization (Georgios et al., 2014: 518). Attention to human resources and its development and empowerment, which is the most valuable human capital and is the center of world-class ability and knowledge, confirms the fact that human beings are considered as a decisive and effective partner in organizations and fostering human resource development leads to comprehensive development. And is the balance of the organization (Hondeghem and Vandermeulen, 2005: 328). Human resources are one of the basic factors of the development process and any success in the process of sustainable development of an organization is conditional on the success of human resource development. Organizations need a strong focus on human resources in order to survive and thrive. The growth and improvement of human resources capabilities is the main factor in creating a competitive advantage and dynamism in today's competitive environment. In the meantime, one of the basic human resource capabilities that companies have targeted, growth and development, is creative thinking and the ability to create ideas and entrepreneurship of employees at all levels. Today's organizations can not beat small, agile, flexible, innovative, opportunistic and low-cost competitors with a small number of creative and entrepreneurial people or implementing a few entrepreneurial projects. They should provide conditions for all employees to have an entrepreneurial spirit and to be able to carry out their entrepreneurial activities easily, continuously and individually or in groups (Kavousi and Rahmati Zanjan Talab, 2011: 26). Therefore, in today's evolving world, success belongs to those communities and organizations that have a significant relationship between their managerial and entrepreneurial capabilities of human and organizational resources. In other words, society and organization can move forward in the path of development that equips its human and organizational resource management system with productive entrepreneurial knowledge and skills by creating the necessary conditions so that they can use this valuable capability to direct other resources of society and organization. Manage value creation and growth and development (shabrangi and Amirnejad, 2019: 153); And now, the role and place of free zones in national development and industrial prosperity, given the different experiences gained over the past three decades that have emerged since the emergence of this phenomenon among developing countries, can be very effective and efficient in a wide range of To vary ineffective and sometimes harmful (Kevin, 2014: 30).
Chabahar Free Zone, which is located in the southeast of Sistan and Baluchestan province, in addition to having the necessary characteristics to establish a free port, also has a special strategic position. Therefore, by conducting this research, it is possible to prepare a plan for the development of entrepreneurship in free zones to some extent, and by identifying the entrepreneurial status of free zones in the indicators and factors studied in this study, executive mechanisms to improve the status of small and medium enterprises in free zones. Companies offered. On the other hand, one of the approaches to the development of entrepreneurial human resources is to identify the factors affecting the entrepreneurship of human resources and provide favorable conditions for their support in society. It is obvious that the provision of environmental conditions on the one hand and the exposure of successful people on the other hand, creates an opportunity for employees of companies to show more enthusiasm for entrepreneurial activities and decide to start a business. Therefore, the main issue of the present study can be the study of factors affecting human resource entrepreneurship in small and medium enterprises in Chabahar Free Zone.
Case study
The statistical population in this study includes all employees of small and medium companies in Chabahar Free Zone in 1398 with 190 people. Simple random sampling method was used for sampling. The number of research samples was calculated by using Cochran's formula of 127 people.
Methodology
This study is conducted to investigate and explain the factors affecting human resource entrepreneurship. It is applied-developmental in terms of purpose and mixed (qualitative and quantitative) in terms of method. Qualitatively, to identify the factors affecting human resource entrepreneurship, first with theoretical studies and with the help of interviews and questions from 8 professors of the Sistan and Baluchestan University Entrepreneurship Department and business experts, the required information was collected about the selection of items in the questionnaire. The scoring method of the questionnaire was scored as a Likert scale from a score of one meaning the least impact and a score of 5 meaning the most impact. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed and corrected using the opinions of respected professors and experts; Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to assess the reliability of the questionnaire, which the total Cronbach's alpha coefficient was ./880 It was calculated to have acceptable reliability.
 
Discussion and Results
The results show that: All factors affecting human resource entrepreneurship in small and medium enterprises in Chabahar Free Zone with an average of 3.0712 have a moderate status and also among the factors affecting human resource entrepreneurship, social factors compared to other Factors with an average of 3.314 are in a more favorable situation.
Conclusion
Among the five dimensions, social factors with an average of 3.314 have a more favorable average than the other dimensions; And then cultural factors with an average of 3.060 is in the last rank in terms of desirability compared to other dimensions. According to the respondents, a significant level for the factors affecting human resource entrepreneurship / 000. The result is less than the standard significance level (0.05) and since the upper and lower limits are positive, it can be concluded that the factors affecting human resource entrepreneurship have a high to average average. Therefore, considering the importance and necessity of human resource entrepreneurship, practical suggestions based on the results of this research are as follows:
-­ It is suggested that by creating a specific system, the business environment be continuously evaluated in order to identify both capable human resources and future trends in supply and demand, volume and quality of manpower.
-­ It is suggested that companies have a specific system in place to manage talent within companies to meet future demand for efficient staff.
-­ In the field of human resource entrepreneurship, companies should pay high attention to autonomy, experience, innovation, interdependence and responsibility, and to a lesser extent to efficiency, specialization andstandardization. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Entrepreneurship
  • Human Resources
  • Government and Political System
  • Economics
  • Laws and Regulations
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