تخصصی‌سازی هوشمند: راهبردی برای سیاست‌گذاری منطقه‌ای نوآوری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری سیاست‌گذاری علم و فناوری، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

2 استاد دانشکده مدیریت و اقتصاد، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

3 استادیار دانشکده مدیریت، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

     تخصصی‌سازی هوشمند، یکی از جدیدترین راهبردهای سیاست‌گذاری منطقه‌ای نوآوری است که پس از نظام منطقه­ای نوآوری موردتوجه قرار گرفته است. این راهبرد بیان می‌دارد برای هر منطقه می‌بایست اولویت‌های مشخصی با توجه به پتانسیل‌های منطقه، به نحوی تعیین گردد که بیش‌ترین تناسب را در راستای تحریک و تقویت نوآوری در سطح منطقه‌ای و ملی داشته باشد. این مقاله به دنبال ارائه چارچوبی برای طراحی سیاست‌های نوآوری منطقه‌ای مبتنی بر راهبرد تخصصی‌سازی هوشمند با در نظر گرفتن تفاوت‌های موجود در وضعیت نوآوری استان‌های کشور است. بدین‌منظور با مطالعه و بررسی پژوهش‌های پیشین مبتنی بر روش فراترکیب، الزامات و مؤلفه‌های سیاست‌گذاری منطقه‌ای مبتنی بر تخصصی‌سازی هوشمند شناسایی شده است. در این گام 119 مقاله برگرفته از پایگاه داده‌های اسکوپوس، امرالد، ساینس‌دایرکت، اسپرینگر و پروکوئست مورد بررسی قرار گرفته و پس از سه مرحله غربالگری، 30 مقاله جهت تحلیل عمیق‌تر شناسایی شدند که نتیجه آن، طراحی چارچوبی برای اجرای راهبرد تخصصی‌سازی هوشمند بود. این چارچوب در سه گام 1) انجام مطالعات مقدماتی و وضع موجود منطقه و تحلیل قابلیت‌ها و توانمندی‌های منطقه، 2) شناسایی اولویت‌های تخصصی‌سازی هوشمند و 3) برنامه‌ریزی عملیاتی تخصصی‌سازی هوشمند ارائه می‌گردد.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Smart Specialization: A Strategy for Policymaking in Regional Innovation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mahdi Pakzad 1
  • Sepehr Ghazinoory 2
  • Mahdi Mohammadi 3
  • Nima Mokhtarzadeh 3
1 Ph.D. Science & Technology Policy making, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.
2 Professor, Department of IT Management, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Management faculty, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Abstract
Innovation is a phenomenon that has significant implications on socio-economic variables such as productivity growth, wealth generation and employment; hence the study of countries' innovation has attracted a significant attraction among policy research. Despite the promotion of the concept of the national innovation system for analyzing the behavior of innovation, complementary perspectives such as the regional system of innovation have also been used because of increased inequalities in different regions. One of the newest regional policymaking strategies is the smart specialization strategy. The strategy states that for each region, certain priorities should be determined with regard to the potential of the region in order to stimulate and enhance innovation at the regional and national levels.
Given the differences in the status of innovation in the provinces of the country, this article seeks to provide a framework for designing regional innovation policies based on smart specialization strategies using the inductive method. To this end, the requirements and components of smart specialization have been identified based on the metasynthesis of previous research (deductive). In this step, 119 articles from Scopus, Emerald, ScienceDirect, Springer, and Proquest databases were examined. After three screening stages, 30 articles were identified for a more in-depth analysis, which resulted in a framework for implementing smart specialization strategy. The framework was proposed with the following components:(1) Examining the current situation of the region and analyzing the capabilities of the region; (2) Identify smart specialization priorities; and (3) Smart specialization operational planning.
Introduction
Innovation is a process dependent on geography and region in which local capacities such as resources, institutions, public and cultural values are the main drivers. Interactions between different sectors of the region, including technical, commercial, legal, social and financial sectors, contribute to the development, protection, financing or regulation of innovation and technology. The dependence of innovation on the characteristics of regions has made it impossible to provide a single model for the development of innovation in the regions, and in fact, a diverse set of institutional capacities, tools and characteristics is needed for the development and management of present and future knowledge. Also important are factors such as regional production, regional environment, system of academia and research in the region, public management, and the capabilities of private and business firms. Given the differences in the state of innovation in the provinces of Iran, this study seeks to present a framework for smart policymaking of regional innovation in Iran.
Theoretical framework
Smart Specialization is an innovation policy concept that aims to boost regional innovation, contributing to growth and prosperity by helping and enabling regions to focus on their strengths. Smart Specialization is based on partnerships between businesses, public entities, and knowledge institutions. Smart specialization strategy' means the national or regional innovation strategies which set priorities in order to build competitive advantage by developing and matching research and innovation own strengths to business needs in order to address emerging opportunities and market developments in a coherent manner, while avoiding duplication and fragmentation of efforts; a smart specialization strategy may take the form of, or be included in, a regional research and innovation (R&I) strategic policy framework.
Methodology
To reach the end, the requirements and components of smart specialization have been identified based on the metasynthesis of previous research. Qualitative metasynthesis is an intentional and coherent approach to analyzing data across qualitative studies. It is a process that enables researchers to identify a specific research question and then search for, select, appraise, summarize, and combine qualitative evidence to address the research question. This process uses rigorous qualitative methods to synthesize existing qualitative studies to construct greater meaning through an interpretative process.  In this study, 119 articles from Scopus, Emerald, ScienceDirect, Springer, and Proquest databases were examined. After three screening stages, 30 articles were identified for a more in-depth analysis, which resulted in a framework for implementing smart specialization strategy.
Discussion and Results
Innovation is a process dependent on geography and region in which local capacities such as resources, institutions, public and cultural values are the main drivers. therefore, the present article, by reviewing previous studies, has provided a framework for smartening regional innovation policies. Based on the proposed framework, regional innovation policies are formulated according to local capabilities and capacities.
Conclusion
this article seeks to provide a framework for designing regional innovation policies based on smart specialization strategies using the inductive method. To this end, the requirements and components of smart specialization have been identified based on the metasynthesis of previous research. The framework was proposed with the following components:(1) Examining the current situation of the region and analyzing the capabilities of the region; (2) Identify smart specialization priorities; and (3) Smart specialization operational planning.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Regional Policymaking
  • Smart Specialization
  • Prioritizing Science and Technology
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