عنوان مقاله [English]
The success of the organization in achieving the goals depends on how management practices and effective managerial leadership styles. Organizations of all sizes need effective leadership to survive, and organizations with effective leaders tend to innovate, respond to changes in markets and environments, respond creatively to challenges, and maintain high performance. On the other hand, the lack of effective leadership has a significant impact on the organization's ability to implement and consolidate strategic initiatives. The main purpose of this study is to identify the organizational factors affecting the development of effective leadership that are presented in the form of a structural-interpretive model. In this research, first by reviewing the research literature and also using content analysis, the main factors affecting the development of effective leadership were identified and in the next step, structural-interpretive modeling of relationships between elements was analyzed. The results showed that a total of 5 identified elements are located at three levels and interact with each other. At the primary level and the highest level of perceptual skills, at the second level three factors; Organizational strategic management, environmental analysis and organizational structure are also targeted at the third level.
One of the best ways for organizations to grow today is to develop their leaders (Hsu et al., 2017). Numerous studies have identified leadership development as a vital and strategic approach to the survival of organizations in a changing world. There is strong evidence that leadership development programs affect the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of managers. Leadership development programs typically develop a variety of relatively related abilities or skills, such as cognitive, interpersonal, business, and strategic skills (Shaw et al., 2017). Leadership development is an important aspect of organizational development and learning. On a global scale, leadership development is a multibillion-dollar industry. While the issue of leadership has been extensively studied and researched over the last half century, little attention has been paid to the development of leadership. In fact, researchers generally do not see the necessary difference between leadership and leadership development, and these two issues are sometimes considered synonymous (Maya, 2014). As a result, having a coherent scientific model and framework for developing effective leadership. In order to adapt the leadership approach to the requirements based on facing the internal and external challenges of the organization (as mentioned above) as well as purposeful and systematic training of employees capable of suitable leadership tenure, there is a great need. In a large part of the history of research related to leadership development, this category is considered as a strategic, important and necessary thing for organizations, which is increasing in importance day by day and is based on the claim that organizations that seek survival and success in business environment They are chaotic and highly competitive today, they have to develop leadership at all levels. A leader cannot be nurtured by education alone. Developmental tasks will not be successful in training leaders without coaching and career planning. Practical and experiential learning will not be very useful if they are not in line with the strategic missions of the organization. On the other hand, the successful implementation of leadership development programs largely depends on the effort, support, commitment and active participation of middle managers, the main management team and the CEO of companies. Therefore, in the present study, after a comprehensive review of the theoretical foundations of the subject and reviewing all existing models in the field of leadership development in organizations, we seek to design a model that is appropriate and appropriate to internal and external requirements in the context of globalization and related crises. Regarding the importance and role of leadership development programs, it should be noted that it is difficult to limit it to a few definitions. One of the most frequently seen topics in the day-to-day content is that financial and capital management tools have been the focus of managers for almost 50 years for sustainable advantage and growth, but recent economic crises have warned managers of this. Focusing on financial metrics is not as efficient as it used to be to achieve a lasting advantage, and the only option left is to focus on managing talent and human capital. A significant portion of the speakers at the 6th Peter Drucker World Memorial Forum believe that the most important change that will affect managers in the coming years is the diminishing role of financial capital and the growing role of human capital. Obviously, these developments will highlight the status and importance of talent development and leadership development programs.
This research has been conducted among the senior managers of the Refah Bank of the country. The managers selected for the present study all have a history of leadership in senior positions in the Refah Bank and have experience in the subject under study.
Materials and Methods
The present study is a combined (qualitative-quantitative) research that has an inductive approach. It is also descriptive-survey in nature and method. Library method was used to collect information in the field of research literature and its background. Content analysis has been used to gather the factors affecting the development of effective leadership. A questionnaire was used to identify the cause and effect relationships between the identified factors. The researcher-made questionnaire was provided to the senior managers of the Refah Bank to determine the cause and effect relationships between the identified components.
Discussion and Results
The results of the present study are consistent with the results of some previous studies. One of them is Moradi's research (2014). In this research, Moradi has shown that goal setting and skills are the main characteristics of effective leaders. Zare (2016) has also shown in his research that; Strategic goal setting, capabilities, environmental knowledge are the main factors in leadership development. Afjeh et al. (2014) have also shown that; Ethical character and empowering factors are the main variables influencing the development of effective leadership. Robert Holmberg et al. (2016) also showed in their study that; Analytical thinking, environmental analysis and resolving organizational conflicts are the most important factors in leadership development. Balico (2017) has also shown in a study that; Four levels of individual, intergroup, structural and extra-organizational are effective in the development of leadership and planners should consider several factors in these four dimensions.
In the qualitative part of the research, the factors affecting the development of effective leadership were identified using content analysis. 33 factors were identified in the qualitative section, which after coding these factors were placed in a total of 5 categories (main factor). The 5 main factors after performing the steps of ISM technique were in three levels. In the first and highest level, the variable of perceptual skills was placed, in other words, the perceptual skills of managers are the main variable in the effective leadership development model. In the second level of the model, three variables; There is strategic management, environmental analysis and organizational structure, and at the third or basic level, the targeting variable was also placed.