عنوان مقاله [English]
Team-building, both in private or public organizations, is very essential nowadays. Team-building is a very significant factor in organization development. Considering this preliminary statement, this paper attempts to present a successful (practical) team-building pattern in the public sector in order to provide a coherent insight/definition into this concept. In this paper that is based on a compound exploratory method, there are two types of statistical population: first the paper reviews a number of papers conducted in this field of study and then each item/category is evaluated according to experts’ opinions. According to the mentioned target, 24 studies and 12 experts are respectively reviewed and selected. The paper takes advantage of Directed Content Analysis to analyze qualitative data and Fuzzy Delphi Method to analyze quantitative data (experts’ opinions), to determine priorities. According to the findings, items like trust-building, mutual support between members, coordination, efficiency, and attending the environment play an important role in this study. It should be mentioned that team-building is a complex process. Therefore, each stage and categories about it should be carefully examined and conducted after that there is successful team building.
Team-building, both in private or public organizations, is very essential nowadays. Team-building is a very significant factor in organization development. Team-building, as a concept, has been defined in numerous ways in different fields of study. In this study a dictionary meaning of the concept is provided. Before providing a definition of team building concept, first it is necessary to define the concept of team. Team refers to a group of interdependent organized individuals who collaborate to achieve a common goal, and who are identified as a team by themselves and observers. Team-building is the process of integrating a group of experts and diverse experienced individuals as well as turning them into a proficient and unified work unit.
Many managers in public sector takes advantage of team-building technique in their organizations to ensure success in their activities. Nevertheless, most of them do not have a proper understanding of the team-building process because almost no research has academically and clearly identified where the team-building process begins and where it ends. Helmes et al. (2006) provide a conceptual framework for successful team-building that is used as a conceptual model of research in this study. The main goal of of this study is to present a proper model of team-building in the public sector based on Helmes et al model.
There are two statistical populations in this study: the first statistical population concerns a study of researches performed in this field of study; the second statistical population concerns government experts’ opinion on the validation of categories and patterns.
Team-building, apart from being a cohesive and effective approach, is an attempt to resolve issues such as interpersonal conflict within the group, misuse of resources, role ambiguity, and the incapability of team members to meet the expectations of key stakeholders. In terms of team-building, Ciasullo., et al (2017) propose two approaches: the traditional approach and the hybrid approach. The traditional approach is based on a leader’s choices while the hybrid approach is based on employee engagement. The traditional approach focuses on organizational relationships and customer needs, and selects the leader of the staff, who should possess mental and professional ability, commitment, and attitude. The leader's role in this approach is to reduce intra-personal conflict and improve cooperation. On the other hand, the hybrid approach emphasizes staff relations and the consensus that emerges from such relations. In this study, we try to consider both approaches. As mentioned, for successful and effective team-building, it is necessary to enact the following five stages: formation, conflict, standardization, execution and temporary liquidation.
The mixed research approach (qualitative and quantitative) is an exploratory one. In this approach, first qualitative data and then quantitative data are collected and analyzed. Priority is usually given to the qualitative phase, and insignificant amount of data is used to reinforce the qualitative data. To study the researches performed in this field, the researchers searched the “team-building” and “team” keywords Magiran, Emerald, Elsevier, Science Direct, Taylor & Francis databases, and 24 articles (sample numbers) were selected according to the purpose of the study. The criteria for selecting experts are: 1) 10 years of experience in executive organizations; 2) having a post in executive agencies; 3) being educated in Management. It is worth mentioning that according to the above three criteria, 12 experts were identified and a questionnaire was distributed among them. Since Holmes et al. (2006) model is general, a qualitative study is required to make this model more objective. Therefore, each step is analyzed and analyzed by the researcher. Then the qualitative study categories are approved by experts (Quantitative Study: Fuzzy Delphi).
Discussion and Results
In this study, we attempted to adopt a model and study the review of related literature and research background to delineate team-building concept. In the first stage, it is very important to create a reliable working atmosphere within the team. Usually, after a very short time, the teams enter their second stage, i.e. disagreements. Researchers and managers know that that the diversity of ideas leads to the emergence of creativity and innovation. In the norm-building phase, members need to be committed to the team’s intended purpose. At the implementation stage, the role of the leader is very clear. Successful leaders do not lose their role within the team, despite the freedom of ideas and action. Usually the expected output of a team is to what extent it has achieved its intended goal.
Because the categories are measured and evaluated by public sector managers, this model and its parameters can best be applied to the public sector, although many of these categories can be useful and important in private sector as well. Many public sector executives confirm the necessity of teamwork in their activities, but do not typically succeed in practice. The reason for this is, probably, that many of them have no sufficient information about team-building and its dimensions. According to the research results, team-building is a complex process (with five stages and twenty categories), and each step and category should be exactly followed up to ensure successful team-building.