واکاوی زنجیره ارزش صنعت فولاد ایران با استفاده از تحلیل اقتصادی زنجیره ارزش و جریان مواد

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری سیاست‌گذای علم و فناوری، مرکز سیاست علمی کشور، تهران، ایران

2 تربیت استاد دانشکده مدیریت و اقتصاد، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

3 دانشیار دانشکده مدیریت و حسابدارى، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی، تهران، ایران.

4 استاد دانشکده فنی و مهندسی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران.

5 دانشجوی دکتری مهندسی مواد، دانشگاه صنعتی سهند، تبریز، ایران.

چکیده

      صنعت فولاد به عنوان یکی از صنایع مادر کشور نقش بسزایی در اشتغال­زایی و ارزآوری دارد و از صنایع زیربنایی توسعه کشور محسوب می شود. ایران در فاکتورهای مهم تولید فولاد مزیت دارد؛ بر اساس طرح جامع فولاد ایران، کلیه حلقه­های زنجیره ارزش این صنعت می­بایست به صورت متوازن توسعه یابند تا کشور از حیث تامین مواد اولیه و میانی زنجیره خود کفا باشد. در مقاله پیش رو با استفاده از روش تحلیل اقتصادی زنجیره ارزش و تحلیل جریان مواد به واکاوی زنجیره ارزش صنعت فولاد ایران در سال­های 93-95 پرداخته شده است. ابتدا زنجیره ارزش فولاد کشور ترسیم و با استفاده از آمار مربوط به میزان تولید و فروش سالانه در هر حلقه از زنجیره ارزش، آمار واردات و صادرات محصولات مختلف زنجیره و . . . جریان مواد در زنجیره ارزش صنعت فولاد تحلیل گردید. سپس کل ارزش افزوده حاصل از زنجیره و سهم مراحل مختلف و هزینه­های عملیاتی و سربار در هر حلقه شناسایی شد.
     بر اساس نتایج این تحقیق عدم توزان و عدم بهره­وری در طول زنجیره مشهود است و در هر سه سال کمبود ظرفیت گندله­سازی، گلوگاه توازن زنجیره بوده است. علاوه بر این تنها بدلیل تفاوت ظرفیت اسمی و تولید واقعی در تولید گندله در سال­ 1393 حدود چهارصد میلیارد ریال، در سال 1394 حدود هزار میلیارد ریال و در سال 1395 حدود هشت هزار میلیارد ریال از ارزش افزوده­ای که می­توانست در زنجیره تولید شود، کاسته شده­است.
بر اساس نتایج این تحقیق عدم توزان و عدم بهره‌وری در طول زنجیره مشهود است و در هر سه سال کمبود ظرفیت گندله-سازی، گلوگاه توازن زنجیره بوده است. علاوه بر این تنها بدلیل تفاوت ظرفیت اسمی و تولید واقعی در تولید گندله در سال‌ 1393 حدود چهارصد میلیارد ریال، در سال 1394 حدود هزار میلیارد ریال و در سال 1395 حدود هشت هزار میلیارد ریال از ارزش افزوده‌ای که می‌توانست در طول زنجیره تولید شود، کاسته شده‌است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Value Chain Analysis of Iran Steel Industry: Combining economic analysis of value chain and material flow analysis

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abolfazl Adab 1
  • Sepehr Ghazinoory 2
  • Soroush Ghazinoory 3
  • Hamid Reza Shahverdi 4
  • Kiumars Ahmadpour 5
1 PHD, Science & Technology Policy making, National Research Institute for Science Policy, Tehran, Iran
2 Professor, Department of IT Management, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
3 Associate Professor, Management & Economics faculty, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran
4 Professor, Materials Science, Engineering faculty, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
5 PHD Candidate, Materials Science, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz, Iran.
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Abstract
Iran has competency in the most important factors in steel production. According to the country's steel strategy plan, all the value chain of this industry shall develope in balance; so that the country can be self-sufficient on the supply of raw material and middle products.
The methodology used in this paper is value chain analysis, which has combined material flow analysis with the economic dimension of value chain analysis during the years 1393-1396. First, the current value chain of iron and steel in Iran is mapped. Next, through using statistics on the annual production and sales in each loop of the value chain, the import and export statistics of various chain products, the flow of materials in the steel industry value chain is analyzed. Then, by economic analysis of the value chain, value added share of different stages and operating and overhead costs in each chain were identified.
According to the findings, there is a significant inequality and inefficiency throughout the chain. And in all three years, the pelletizing was the bottleneck of chain balances.
In addition, due to the difference between nominal capacity and actual production of pellets in 1393, about 400 billion rials, in the year 1394 about 1,000 billion rials, and in 1395 about 8,000 billion rials of added value that could have been created in the course of the value chain were lost.
Introduction
Steel industry as one of the basic industries of the country plays a significant role in value creation. Steel manufacturing in the world is mainly done in two ways: Blast furnace technology and scrap or DRI smelting in electric arc furnaces.
The value chain of the Iran steel industry is unbalanced. This problem is raised in the supply of raw materials to factories.
At the industry level, to reach effective policymaking and sustainable resource management, accurate information on material flow in different nodes of a chain is critical. Value chain analysis, in parallel, provides an opportunity to relate these flows to economic variables, so that concepts such as resource productivity and economic productivity can be described clearer.
Case study
The case study is Iran steel industry; In 2016, Iran, with a production of 17.9 million tons of crude steel by both blast furnace and direct reduction method, was ranked 14th in the world production of crude steel. 87.8% of the country's production is provided by direct reduction method and the rest by blast furnaces.  Iran has competency in the most important factors in steel production.
Materials and Methods
Iran's steel industry regarding the share of the use of arc technology in steel production is unique. According to the Iran industrial policy, all the nodes in the steel value chain must be developed in a balanced way; this policy is also unique.
Previous researchs have been done with the aim of increasing energy efficiency and reducing carbon dioxide production or modeling the amount of steel waste. We cannot refer to a detailed research on the subject of material flow analysis in the steel industry. The use of multiple sources of information on the flow of materials, accounting reports of various factories over the last three years, and the simultaneous use of material flow analysis and economic analysis of the value chain, is done for the first time.
Methodology
Material Flow Analysis (MFA) is a tool for analyzing the inputs and the outputs of material in an area defined by boundaries; whereas the boundaries can be set as a nation, an area or a company depending on what is to be analyzed. Value chain analysis (VCA) is a method for accounting and presenting the value that is created in a product or service as it is transformed from raw input to a final product consumed by end users.
Research findings
In order to analyze the flow of materials, World Steel Association report in 2014-2016, the import and export of various nodes in the value chain (based on the customs statistics of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the years 2014 to 2016), and Iran steel industry master plan report were used. Also, in value chain analysis, audited financial statements of Chadormeloo Co., GolGohar Co., South Kish Steel Co., Khorasan Steel Co. and Khuzestan Steel Co. have been analyzed.
Based on the results of the research, the flow of metal of the steel production value chain was drawn during the years 2014 to 2016.
In addition, the deviation of the actual production from the nominal capacity in the last three years was plotted in three graphs. (Collection of information and drawing of all diagrams have been done by the authors).
Discussion and Results
According to the findings, there is a significant inequality and inefficiency throughout the chain. Moreover, in all three years, the pelletizing was the bottleneck of chain balances.
In addition, due to the difference between nominal capacity and actual production of pellets in 1393, about 400 billion rials, in the year 1394 about 1,000 billion rials, and in 1395 about 8,000 billion rials of added value that could have been created in the course of the value chain were lost.
Conclusion
Due to the difference between nominal capacity and actual production of pellets, an added value that could have been created in the course of the value chain was lost.  In other words, despite the fact that the increase of production capacities was the main approach to the development of this industry in Iran, the country has not succeeded in implementing this strategy (quantitative development).
The analysis of the value chain of the country's steel industry from the perspective of economic analysis of the value chain and the flow of materials provide an opportunity for policymakers to better understand the steel industry and the dynamic changes of different loops in the chain. By recognizing the bottlenecks of production and consequently, the roots of the inefficiency of the chain, the policymaker can design appropriate policies and interventions to upgrade the value chain.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Value chain analysis
  • Material flow analysis
  • Iron & steel industry
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