عنوان مقاله [English]
The present survey aims to identify, rank and present managers’ core competencies model. This survey is applied in terms of its objective, and a combined one in terms of data collection method. In this survey, the intended model is developed through qualitative meta-synthesis method. Adopting meta-synthesis method, 92 papers on the competency of managers were reviewed. Then, content analysis contributed to determination of the relevant aspects and codes, and this step was followed by determination of significance levels and weight of each method by adopting Shannon's entropy approach. In order to validate the model, the questionnaire no. 1 was designed and distributed among the participants of the statistical population. The collected data were analyzed through confirmatory factor analysis and Smart PLS Software. The findings suggest that the competencies identified by the model could be categorized into individual (i.e. perceptive and behavioral), social (social awareness and social skills) and professional aspects (managerial, planning and knowledge). In the third step of this study, the second questionnaire was developed and distributed among the experts. The objective was to prioritize the aspects and items of competency through analytic network process. The resulting data of the recollected questionnaires was analyzed in Super Decisions Software, and the intended aspects and items were prioritized. The results suggested that effective communication, decision making and planning are ranked the first to the third among other measures of the research model, respectively.
Development of different cultural, political, economic, social, and especially technological fields creates a competitive, dynamic, ambiguous, unstable and highly volatile environment, which prevents governmental organizations from planning under sustained conditions and makes them face with many challenges before they can achieve their goals. As a result, the lack of timely and responsive action to these changes has led to decline, merger, or reduced life of many organizations in recent years (Soltani et al, 2017). Due to numerous organizational changes in different periods of time such as dynamic nature of competitive environment, flattening of organizational structures, and globalization of organizations among others, the organizations’ need for competent managers and new approaches is more significant than ever (Nwokah & Ahiauzu, 2008). The competency of managers can influence the organizational development and change management and effectively implement planned developments (Shimoni, 2017). In fact, competency models are valuable as they offer a holistic approach to suggest a set of qualifications, required by a job or a specific industry, which an individual has or should acquire.
Based on review of previous studies, one can suggest that hitherto no thorough study on core competencies of managers has been conducted, and each aspect of competency identified in previous studies is one of the core competencies of managers. Therefore, this paper aims to explain the core competencies of managers through meta-synthesis and to prioritize the competencies through Shannon entropy method and analytic network process (ANP). The meta-synthesis method enables reviewing major studies on competency and proper classification of managers’ core competencies.
The population studied for the first questionnaire included all managers of the General Directorate of Cooperatives, Labor and Social Welfare of Sistan and Baluchestan. The evaluated sample was selected according to the census. The second questionnaire was developed to prioritize dimensions, components and indicators of key managerial competencies. To use ANP, samples were selected from experts and top managers of the General Directorate of Cooperatives, Labor and Social Welfare.
Materials and Methods
The first step of this study is concerned with adoption of meta-synthesis method and collection of data through searching for and selecting papers on relevant electronic databases. In the second step, the field study method was used to collect data, validate the suggested model of the study, and in the third step of the research, prioritize the core competencies of managers.
Discussion and Conclusion
In this study, the goal was explanation of the relevant aspects and the components of managers’ competencies through meta-synthesis method. The method requires the researcher to combine qualitative and quantitative studies of a definite field and interpret them. Adopting meta-synthesis method, 92 papers on managers’ competency were reviewed, and content analysis was conducted to extract the relevant aspects and codes. The study pattern includes 3 aspects, 7 items, and 37 indicators. In order to validate the model, the confirmatory factor analysis was conducted. Then, significance and priority of each indicator, aspect and item were determined through quantitative method of Shannon entropy and analytic network process. The findings suggest that development of managers’ competency requires attention to different personal, social and professional aspects. Based on previous experiences and studies, one could suggest that the final framework of this study (as shown in figure 2) could offer a proper roadmap for development of managers’ competency. After weighing managers’ competency through Shannon entropy method, effective communication, leadership, team building and teamwork, instruction and training of others, decision-making and problem solving skills, adaptation and flexibility, self-confidence and creativity have the coefficients with the maximum significance and are included as top ranks. This means that in the field of managers’ competency, these items drew more attention to themselves, and they have higher frequencies than the other codes. Therefore, one may suggest that attention to these indicators is critical for implementation of manager competency model. Prioritization through analytic network process suggested that the aspect of professional dimension (0.419) was known as the most important dimension, followed by the social and personal dimensions (0.333 and 0.247, respectively). Moreover, the planning component (0.16270) was known as the most important component, followed by social skills, management, behavior, knowledge, social awareness and attitude, respectively. Effective communication (0.065) was known as the most important indicator, followed by decision making and planning (0.064 and 0.053, respectively).