عنوان مقاله [English]
The present study is a correlational and regression type of research, and Questionnaire is used as a data collection tool. The research sample was selected to be 138 people using Morgan table. According to findings, the employees of the Department of Education have high adherence to ethical behaviors; they have low level of achievement motivation and have moderate level of work conscience. Also, there was no significant relationship between ethical behaviors and achievement motivation variables and no significant relationship between the variable of ethical behaviors and the variable of work conscience. Adherence to ethical behavior predicts the achievement motivation by 3%.
Conscience is the center of divine awareness and daily life and religious exercises may be a way to achieve a pure conscience (Triyuwonoa, 2015: 256). The need for achievement motivation involves an inner and strong feeling towards achievement and it is based on the expectation of performing the tasks faster and better than others or performing them better than the past (Ghasemi, 2014: 38). Ethical behaviors are also associated with corruptionit can be a factor in creating work conscience and self-control in the organization (Alavi and Etesami, 2009). Ghalavandi and Alizadeh (2013) concluded that there is a positive and significant relationship between serving leadership characteristics of managers and perceived organizationa justice and work conscience. Karimi Et al (2010) concluded that among the dimensions of organizational climate, responsibility, standard and conflict have a significant relationship with ethical behavior. According to Alvani Et al (2010: 26), the work ethics become a part of an organization's strategy. Some like Hanekom considered the most common problems in the non-ethical public sector as bribery, theft, and corruption (Puiua, 2015: 605). Moreover, Tom and Kamp Bell showed that any activity of teacher (educator) has an ethical achievement (Elena, 2011: 146).
The research population included employees of the Zahedan Department of Education that 67 people were selected from district 1 and 71 people were selected from district 2 as the sample size.
Materials and Methods
The present study is correlational and regression type. Questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. The ethical behaviors assessed by Lussier Questionnaire (2013), achievement motivation assessed by Sepahi questionnaire (2012), and work conscience assessed by Costa and McCrae questionnaire (1992). Single–group t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression were used to analyze the data.
Discussion and Results
Based on the interpretation of the score of ethical behaviors, as mean score obtained from this variable is less than 28, we conclude that the individuals have high adherence to the ethical behaviors in the organization. As the result, the level of achievement motivation in the samples is lower than the average. According to findings, the mean score of the work conscience is at the moderate level. According to results, the correlation obtained for the relationship between ethical behaviors and achievement motivation not significant. According to findings, the correlation obtained for the relationship between ethical behaviors and work conscience is not significant. According to results, work conscience increases with increasing levels of achievement motivation. As a result, the variable of ethical behaviors predicts the achievement seeking variable by 3% that this level of prediction is low. According results, predicting the work conscience through ethical behaviors, it can be stated that the index of ethical behaviors with beta (β = 0.04), t test (t = 0.55) and significance level (sig=0.57) is not at the desired status compared to its predictive variable (work conscience) and this variable cannot be considered as predictive variable for the criterion variable. As its error rate is more than 0.05, the test is not significant.
It was concluded that the employees of the Department of Education have high adherence to ethical behaviors. This result is consistent with the result of the study conducted by Bakhtiari (2014). It is also consistent with the result of the study conducted by Carlin and Geravis (Ghahramani, 2011). This result is not consistent with the result of the research conducted by Sepahi (2012). It is concluded that employees of the Zahedan Department of Education have moderate level of work conscience. According to research, there was no significant relationship between ethical behaviors and achievement motivation variables. Attaryan and Greenfield concluded that there was a relationship between core ethics, organizational commitment and job satisfaction (Soleymani, 2011). Moreover some like Khosravi concluded that there was a significant relationship between work ethics and organizational commitment and job satisfaction (Gahramani, 2011). According to research, also there was no significant relationship between the variable of ethical behaviors and the variable of work conscience. However, some found a significant relationship between work ethic, job satisfaction and organizational commitment in their research (Asadi Et al, 2009). Karimi Et al (2010) concluded that there was a significant relationship between organizational climate and ethical behavior. Moreover, Alkins concluded that there was a weak correlation between work conscience and job satisfaction in a Japanese manufacturing company (Hasani Et al, 2012). Based on the research, it was concluded that there was a significant and positive relationship between the achievement motivation factor and the work conscience variable, that is, an increase in one variable leads to an increases in the other variable. Moreover, Hodaei concluded that there is a significant relationship between economic factors, human relations, and value system and the conscience (Sarmad, 2009). Based on the research, it was concluded that ethical behaviors could predict achievement motivation by 3%. In this regard, some reserachs showed that ethical behavior in the workplace affects job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Hasani Et al, 2012). Finally, according to the research, the variable of ethical behaviors cannot predict the variable of work conscience. In this regard, Mahmoodi (2012) concluded that self-actualization variable could predict the variables of work conscience.