تبیین نقش رهبری اصیل در فراموشی سازمانی هدفمند با توجه به نقش میانجی توانمندسازی کارکنان

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت دولتی، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

2 دانشیار مدیریت دولتی، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

چکیده

در طی دهه گذشته، شرکت‌ها به شکل فزاینده‌ای به ارزش مدیریت دانش جهت کسب مزیت رقابتی پی برده‌اند. دو بعد عمده مدیریت دانش عبارتند از یادگیری سازمانی و فراموشی سازمانی. علی‌رغم تحقیقات بسیار زیادی که در زمینه مدیریت دانش و یادگیری سازمانی انجام‌گرفته است، تاکنون در زمینه فراموشی سازمانی و مدیریت آن مطالعه و بررسی زیادی انجام‌نشده است. هدف از پژوهش حاضر بررسی نقش رهبری اصیل در فراموشی سازمانی هدفمند با توجه به نقش میانجی توانمندسازی روانشناختی می باشد. روش تحقیق توصیفی- همبستگی و از حیث هدف کاربردی است. جامعه آماری، شامل کلیه کارکنان شرکت ملی پخش فراورده‌های نفتی استان سیستان و بلوچستان است که از میان آن‌ها تعداد 165 نفر به روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی به‌عنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند. ابزار گردآوری داده‌ها شامل پرسشنامه‌های رهبری اصیل آولیو و همکاران (2007)، فراموشی سازمانی دی هالن و همکاران (2004) و توانمندسازی روانشناختی وتن و کمرون (1995) می‌باشد. در این پژوهش از آزمون‌های همبستگی، رگرسیون و مدل معادلات ساختاری استفاده‌شده و داده‌ها از طریق نرم‌افزار لیزرل مورد تحلیل قرارگرفته است. نتایج حاکی از آن است که رهبری اصیل هم به‌طور مستقیم و هم به‌طور غیرمستقیم از طریق توانمندسازی روانشناختی بر فراموشی سازمانی هدفمند تأثیرگذار است و توانمندسازی روانشناختی به‌عنوان متغیر میانجی در رابطه بین رهبری اصیل و فراموشی سازمانی هدفمند به‌طور نسبی اثرگذار است. هم‌چنین نتایج تأثیر مثبت توانمندسازی روانشناختی بر فراموشی سازمانی هدفمند را نشان داد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Describing the Role of Authentic Leadership in Intentional Organizational Forgetting, Given the Mediatory Role of Personnel Empowerment

نویسندگان [English]

  • Samane Mohammadpour 1
  • Amin Reza Kamalian 2
1 PhD Candidate of Public Management, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedzan, Iran
2 Associate Professor of Public Management, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, Zahedan, Iran
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Much research has been done about authentic leadership, which indicates its effect on organizational factors such as performance, organizational citizenship behaviour, human resource empowerment, trust to management, organizational commitment, emotional intelligence, organizational learning, etc. (Wong & Laschinger, 2012; Kara, Uysal, Sirgy& Lee, 2013). Of course, further research and study shows lack of research about its effect on organizational forgetting. On the other hand, despite much research that has been done about knowledge management and organizational learning, organizational forgetting and its management have not been comprehensively studied so far. The novelty of this research is that it has been formulated based on this theoretical gap. The purpose of this
paper is to consider the relationship between authentic leadership and intentional organizational forgetting and psychological Empowerment in the National Oil Products Distribution Company of Sistan and Baluchestan Province. In this paper, after having a brief look upon the theoretical fundamentals and the literature according to the conceptual model and research hypotheses, methodology and data analysis are considered using structural equations model.
Case study
Statistical population of the research includes the staffs of National Oil Products Distribution Company of Sistan and Baluchestan Province, who were 294 individuals at the time of conducting this research. In this paper, Morgan’s table is used to determine the sample size and it was estimated as 165 individuals.
Materials and methods
In terms of purpose, this is an applied study and in terms of data collection, it is a descriptive-survey research. The main measurement tool is questionnaire which includes standard questionnaires of Avolio et al.’s Authentic Leadership (2007), De Holan’s Organizational Forgetting (2004) and Spreitzer’s Empowerment (1995). After making some changes in them in order to make them proportionate with the statistical population and asking the experts’ opinions, these questionnaires were used to measure the validity of questions. In order to analyze the research data, in the first stage, reliability of questions was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha test and it was obtained as 0.86 for authentic leadership items, 0.81 for organizational forgetting and 0.93 for psychological Empowerment. This shows a suitable and acceptable reliability for the questionnaire. Data normality was considered using Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. In the next stage, the relationship between the variables was considered using the correlation test, and finally the research hypotheses were tested using structural equations modeling.
Results and discussion
                       
 
As can be seen in structural function pattern, the model is in a desirable status, so that authentic leadership and psychological Empowerment with coefficients 0.57 and 0.43 have direct, positive and significant effect on organizational forgetting (the first and second hypotheses). Also, the coefficient 0.52 indicates the direct, positive and significant effect of authentic leadership on staffs’ psychological capital (the third hypothesis). Given the T-value, authentic leadership has a significant relationship with intentional organizational forgetting (T=6.01) and psychological Empowerment (T=5.55). Moreover, the model shows a significant relationship between psychological Empowerment and intentional organizational forgetting (T=4.88). Therefore, hypotheses 1, 2 and 3 are confirmed. According to second model (indirect measurement of the effect of the independent variable on dependent variable) it is observed that, according to the role of the mediator variable, the path coefficient value between the independent and dependent variables has decreased from 0.61 to 0.57. Therefore, the variable of psychological Empowerment has a relative effect on the relationship between authentic leadership and intentional organizational forgetting; hence the fourth hypothesis is confirmed.
Conclusion
Findings of the research indicate that fitting indices are in a desirablestatus for confirmatory factor analysis models for all the latent variables. The results of testing the hypotheses show that authentic leadership has positive, direct and significant effect on intentional organizational forgetting (the first hypothesis). The review of literature of the research indicates that previous studies which were based on experimental data have not tested the effects of authentic leadership on intentional organizational forgetting; hence we cannot directly compare the results of those studies with other ones. So far no research has dealt with the effects of authentic leadership on intentional organizational forgetting; however, in some studies, the relationship between other leadership styles such as transformational leadership, transactional leadership, pragmatic leadership and intentional organizational forgetting has been studied and the positive relationships among them have been approved. According to this, it can be said that the results of this research are indirectly consistent with the studies by TaghvaiYazdi (2015), Azizinejadet al. (2014), Moshabaki et al. (2011) Moshabaki and Rabieh (2007).The results of testing the second hypothesis show that psychological Empowerment has a positive, direct and significant effect on intentional organizational forgetting. The results and findings of this hypothesis conform to the findings of Kamarehei & Safari (2015).
The results of testing the third hypothesis indicate that authentic leadership has a positive, direct and significant effect on psychological Empowerment of the staffs. results of this research are indirectly consistent with the studies by Walumbwa et al (2010), Emuwa (2013), Laschinger et al (2013). Also, the results of testing hypothesis four show that psychological Empowerment as a mediator variable is partly effective on the relationship between authentic leadership and intentional organizational forgetting.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Authentic Leadership
  • organizational forgetting
  • psychological empowerment
1-Abdollahi, B. Naveh Ibrahim, A.R. (2006). Golden Key employee empowerment of human resources management. Tehran: Virayesh Publications.(In Persian)
2-Algera, P.M., & Lips-Wiersma, M. (2012). Radical authentic leadership: Co-creating the conditions under which all members of the organization can be authentic. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(1), 118–131.
3-Alok, K. (2014). Authentic leadership and psychological ownership: investigation of interrelations. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 35 (4), 266- 285.
4-Avolio, B. J., Gardner, W. L., Walumbwa, F. O., Luthans, F. & May, D. R. (2004). Unlocking the mask: A look at the process by which authentic leaders impact follower attitudes and behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly, 15(6), 801-823.
5-Avolio, B. J. & Gardner, W. L. (2005). Authentic Leadership development: Getting to the root of positive forms of leadership", The Leadership Quarterly, 16(3), 315-338.
6-Azizinejad, B. Jenabadi, H. Moradzadeh, A.B. (2011). Design model of leadership style on organizational forgetting and organizational performance using structural equation modeling. Public Management Research, 7 (25), 75-96. (In Persian)
7-Brown, M. E., & Trevino, L. K. (2006). Ethical leadership: A review future directions, The Leadership Quarterly, 17(6), 596-616.
8-Conger, J.A., & Kanungo, R.N. (1998). The Empowerment Process:Integrating Theory and Practice. Academy of Management Review, 13(3), 471-482.
9-Degago, E. (2014). A Study on Impact of Psychological Empowerment on Employee Performance in Small and Medium Scale Enterprise Sectors. European Journal of Business and Management, 6 (27), 60-73.
10-Diddams,M., Chang,G.C. (2012). Only human: Exploring the nature of weakness in authentic leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(3), 593-603.
11-Emuwa, A. (2013). Authentic leadership: commitment to supervisor, follower empowerment, and procedural justice climate. Emerging Leadership Journeys, 6(1), 45-65.
12- Fernandez, V., & Sun, A. (2009).Organizational forgetting and its causes: An empirical research. Journal of Organizational Change Management. 22(6), 620‐634.
13-Furmanczyk, J. (2010). The cross_cultural leadership aspect. Journal of Intercultural Management,2(2),67-82.
14- Gardner, W. L., Cogliser, C. C., Davis, K. M., & Dickens, M. P. (2011). Authentic leadership: A review of the literature and research agenda. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(6), 1120 -1145.
15-Gupta, N. (2010). Talent Management in Indian Upstream Oil & Gas Sector.Available at: http:// www.deloptte.com/In [July 2010].
16-Han, S. H., Seo, G., Yoon, S. W., & Yoon, D. Y. (2016). Transformational Leadership and Knowledge Sharing: Mediating Roles Of Employee’s Empowerment, Commitment, And Citizenship Behaviors. Journal of Workplace Learning, 28(3), 130-149.
17-Hedberg, B. (1981). How Organizations Learn and Unlearn. Handbook of Organizational Design, Vol. 1: Adapting Organizations to their Environments (pp. 3-27). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
18-Hinojosa, A.S., McCauley, K.D., Randolph-Seng. B., William, L., Gardner, W.L. (2014). Leader and follower attachment styles: Implications for authentic leader–follower relationships. The Leadership Quarterly, 25, 595-610.
19-Joo, B.K., Nimon, K. (2014). Two of a kind? A canonical correlational study of transformational leadership and authentic leadership. European Journal of Training and Development, 38 (6), 570-587.
20-Kamarehei, M., Safari, A. (2015). studying the relationship between organizational forgetting and empowerment of the employees: case study: Employees of saipa yadak. Applied mathematics in Engineering, Management and Technology 3 (2): 329-336.
21-kara, D., Uysal, M., Sirgy, M.J., & Lee, G. (2013). The Effects of Leadership Style on Employee Well-being in Hospitality. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 34, 9-18.
22-Laschinger, H.K., Wong, C.A., & Grau, A.L. (2013). Authentic leadership, empowerment and burnout: a comparison in new graduates and experienced nurses. Jornal of nursing management, 21(3), 541-552.
23-Laschinger, H.K., Fida, R. (2014). A time-lagged analysis of the effect of authentic leadership on workplace bullying, burnout, and occupational turnover intentions. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 23 (5), 739–753.
24-lies, R., Morgeson, F. P., & Nahrgang, J. D. (2005). Authentic leadership and eudaemonic well-being: understanding leader–follower outcomes. The Leadership Quarterly, 16, 373-394.
25-Lloyd- Walker, B., & Walker, D., (2011). Authentic Leadership for 21st Century Project Delivery. International Journal of Project Management, 29, 383-395.
26-Martin De Holan, P., & Philips, N. (2003). Organizational Forgetting. In Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge Management, 393-409. New York: Sage.
27-Martin De Holan, P., Phillips, N. & Lawrence, T.B. (2004). Managing organizational forgetting. MIT Sloan Management Review, 45(2), 45‐51.
28-Michaelis, B., Wagner, J. D., & Schweizer, L. (2015). Knowledge as a Key in the Relationship between High-Performance Work Systems and Workforce Productivity. Journal of Business Research, 68(5), 1035-1044.
29-Mishra, A., & Spreitzer, G.M. (1997). Survivor Responses to Downsizing: the Mitigating Effect of Trust and Empowerment, Southern California Studies Center.
30-May, D. R., Chan, A. Y. L., Hodges, T. D., & Avolio, B. J. (2003). Developing the Moral Component of Authentic Leadership Organizational Dynamics, 32 (3), 247-260.
31-Moshabaki, A. AndalibArdakani, N. AndalibArdakani, D. (2011). the impact of leadership styles on purposeful forgetting: a new approach in knowledge management. Health Management, 14 (44), 41-55. (In Persian)
32-Moshabaki, A. & Rabieh, M. (2007). Organizational forgetting (strategic): Elixir competitiveness of the organization. Journal of Science Teacher, 13 (4), 193-218. (In Persian)
33-Neider, L.L., Schriesheim, C.A. (2011). The authentic leadership inventory (ALI): Development and empirical tests. The Leadership Quarterly. 22(6), 1146-1164.
34-Peterson,S.J., Walumbwa,F.O., Avolio,B.J., & Hannah,S.T. (2012). The relationship between authentic leadership and follower job performance: The mediating role of follower positivity in extreme contexts. Leadership Quarterly, 23(3), 502-516.
35-Pourmonazah, A. (2014). Investigation of the Influence of Dimensions of Psychological Empowerment on Employees' Organizational Commitment. Journal of Applied Environmental and Biological Sciences, 4(12), 371-378.
36-Roof, R. (2013). Authentic Leadership Questionnaire (ALQ) Psychometrics. Asian Journal of Business Ethics, 3 (1), 1-8.
37-Sales, C., & Oliveira. (2014). Empowerment Labs: Gender Equality, Employability and Theatre Catalyzing Social Change. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 161, 56-63.
38-Spreitzer, G.M. (1995). An Empirical Test of a Comprehensive Model of Intrapersonal Empowerment in the Workplace. American Journal of Community Psychology, 23(5), 601-629.
39-Stoten, D.W. (2014). Authentic leadership in English education: what do college teachers tell us?, International Journal of Educational Management, 28 (5), 510-522.
40-TaghvaiYazdi, M. (2015).The relationship between transformational leadership style and organizational learning with organizational forgetting.International. Conference on Management, Economics and Financial Systems, Dubai, PendarAndishRahpou Co. (In Persian)
41-Thomas, K.W., & Velthouse, B.A. (1990). Cognitive Elements of Empowerment: an ’interpretive model’ of intrinsic task motivation. Academy of Management Review, 15(4), 666-681.
42-Toor, S., & Ofori, G. (2007). Leadership for future construction industry: Agenda for authentic Leadership. International Journal of
43-Waite, R., Mckinney, N., Glasgow, M.S., Meloy, F.A. (2014). The embodiment of authentic leadership. Journal of Professional Nursing, 30 (4), 282-291.
44-Walumbwa, F. O., Wang, P., Wang, H., Schaubroeck, J., & Avolio, B. J., (2010). Psychological Processes Linking Authentic Leadership to Follower Behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly, 21, 901-914.
45-Walumbwa, F. O., Avolio, B. J., Gardner, W. L., Wernsing, T. S., & Peterson, S. J. (2008). Authentic leadership: Development and validation of a theory-based measure. Journal of Management, 34(1), 89-126.
46-Whetten, D. S & Cameron, K. (1995). Developing Management skills
. 3 th edition, New York, NY: Hapercollins publishers.
47-Wong, C.A., Laschinger, H K.S. (2012). Authentic Leadership, performance and Job Satisfaction: the Mediating Role of Empowerment. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69(4), 947-959.
48-Yammarino, F. J., Dionne, S. D., Schriesheim, C. A., & Dansereau, F. (2008). Authentic leadership and positive organizational behavior: A meso, multi-level perspective. The Leadership Quarterly, 19(6), 693–707.
49-Zeng, J., & Chen, C. (2010). The Relationship between Intentional Organizational Forgetting and Organizational Innovation: The Mediating Effect of Organizational Learning Capability. School of Business Administration South China University of Technology Guangzhou.