ارائه الگوی عوامل مؤثر بر مشارکت نخبگان در فرایند تدوین خط‌مشی‌‌‌های عمومی نظام جمهوری اسلامی ایران

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت دولتی-گرایش تصمیم گیری و خط مشی گذاری عمومی، دانشکده مدیریت دانشگاه آزاد تهران مرکزی

2 استادیار گروه مدیریت و فلسفه علم و فناوری، دانشکده مهندسی پیشرفت، دانشگاه علم و صنعت ایران

3 استاد تمام دانشگاه شهیدبهشتی تهران و رئیس دانشکدة مدیریت دانشگاه آزاد واحد تهران مرکزی.

10.22111/jmr.2020.29228.4507

چکیده

       پژوهش حاضر، با هدف ارتقاء عقلانیت خط‌مشی‌گذاری عمومی در نظام جمهوری اسلامی ایران از طریق مشارکت نخبگان در تدوین خط‌مشی‌های عمومی صورت گرفته است. بر این اساس، سؤال از چیستی الگوی عوامل مؤثر بر مشارکت نخبگان در فرایند تدوین خط‌مشی‌های عمومی نظام جمهوری اسلامی ایران، مسأله اصلی این پژوهش بوده که از طریق کاربست پژوهش آمیخته به صورت کیفی-کمّی بدان پاسخ داده شده است. در ابتدا و در مقام گردآوری داده، پژوهشگران از طریق مطالعات کتابخانه‌ای و پس از آن با تحلیل محتوای مطالعات پیشین، 18 عامل مؤثر بر مشارکت نخبگان در فرایند تدوین خط مشی­های عمومی را استخراج کردند. پس از آن و در گام دوم تحلیل، پژوهشگران، از طریق استخدام روش دیمتل به 15 خبره زیسته در نظام جمهوری اسلامی ایران مراجعه کرده که در نتیجۀ آن رابطه عوامل با یکدیگر و شدت اثر آنها بر هم مشخص گردید. یافته­های پژوهش نشان از این دارد که ایجاد شبکه‌های آموزشی و پژوهشی و فن‌آوری بین دانشگاه‌ها و مؤسسات پژوهشی و سازمان‌ های اجرایی کشور، تأثیرگذارترین عامل و اصلاح رفتار سیاسی- اجتماعی در سطح‌ ملی، تأثیرپذیرترین عامل در بین عوامل احصا شده است. پژوهش حاضر می‌تواند مبنای عمل خط‌مشی‌گذاران جهت جلب مشارکت نخبگان در نظام خط‌مشی‌گذاری عمومی کشور قرار گیرد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Presentation of a Model for Factors Affecting the Participation of Elites in the Process of Formulation of the Public Policymaking of the Islamic Republic of Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Danial Ramezanpour 1
  • Mahdi Abdolhamid 2
  • Ali Rezaeian 3
1 Ph.D. student in field of decision making and public policy making of the central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University
2 Assistant Professor, Management and Science and Technology Philosophy Department, Progress Engineering Faculty, Iran University of Science and Technology
3 Professor of Shahid Beheshti University and president/dean of management faculty of the central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University.
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract
Abstract
By considering the subject of the promotion of rationality for public policymaking in the Islamic Republic of Iran, the present research has been conducted through the participation of elites in the formulation of public policymaking. Accordingly, the question of what is the pattern of factors influencing elite participation in the process of formulating public policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran has been the main issue of this study. The present research is a mixed method (qualitative-quantitative). At first and in the position of data gathering, researchers extracted 18 factors affecting the participation of elites in the process of formulation of the public policymaking of the Islamic Republic of Iran through library studies and, subsequently, content analysis of the previous studies. Then, and in the second step of the analysis, the researchers referred to 15 living experts in the Islamic Republic of Iran system by employing the DEMATEL method. Research findings indicate that the establishment of educational, researching, and technological networks among universities, researching institutes and administrative organization is the most influential factor and modifying national socio-political behavior has become the most dependent factor. The current research can be regarded as a basis of action on behalf of policymakers in order to attract the participation of elites in the public policymaking system.
 
Introduction:
The principal role of government in the new world is public policy-making. One of the most important stakeholders in the formulation of public policies are the elites.  Wherever there is progress in the world, there is evidence of the intellectual cohesion of the instrumental elites and the intellectual elites. But the main issue is that there is a gap in the formulation of public policies in Iran between the status quo and the desirable one. One of the major weaknesses in the formulation of Iran's public policies seems to be the lack of elite involvement in the formulation of public policies. So the main question in this study is "What is the pattern of factors influencing participation of elites in formulating public policies of the Islamic Republic of Iran?"
Case study:
The formulation and implementation of programs, plans and public policies in Iran is not successful and unsatisfactory and critics believe there may be weaknesses in policy formulation. Therefore, the present research in the subject area considers the participation of the scientific elites in the process of formulating public policies In addition, the identification of factors affecting the participation of scientific elites in the territory of the Islamic Republic of Iran has been done through a governance perspective, including NGOs, public and private actors.
Materials and methods:
The present research is a mixed method (qualitative-quantitative). In the first step, the data were extracted from library documents and studies. Then, through the analysis of the texts, the factors that influence the participation of the elites in the formulation of public policies were identified. Subsequently, public policy experts were consulted and their views were analyzed through the use of the DEMATEL method, and how the concepts were established and deployed, and the severity of the effects were determined. The statistical population in this research is policy-makers with Ph.D. or Ph.D. degree and related work experience. The sampling method was theoretical and 15 persons were selected.
Discussion and results:
Governments strive to solve community issues through public policies. Therefore, any mechanism that contributes to the utility and quality of policies is important. Therefore, the present study proposes an approach that attempts to lead the policy system to formulate scientific and practical policies. This approach emphasizes the involvement of elites in the process of formulating public policies. In this study, DEMATEL method was used to analyze 18 factors. Accordingly, the factors: the establishment of educational, researching, and technological networks among universities, researching institutes and administrative organization (C6), creating the legal context in line with encouraging elites to participate in policymaking and policy research centers (C7), strengthening the national culture of community participation (C8), the preference of the law over the relationship and the preference of national interest over factional interest in society is most influential (C11), Effective communication with elites in the country (C16), Government support for decisions of policy making and policy research centers (C4) have the most impact.
Also, the factors: Modifying national socio-political behavior (C9), the preference of the law over the relationship and the preference of national interest over factional interest in society is most influential (C11), creating the legal context in line with encouraging elites to participate in policymaking and policy research centers (C7), are the most dependent.
Conclusion:
Based on the results, the Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran should strengthen the humanistic approach to establish a genuine and sustainable participation. In this approach, based on human capabilities, using the power of elites, the path of development is planned and implemented. If such a participation takes place, during a learning process, the country's elite scientific theories will grow along with government action.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Islamic Republic of Iran
  • Public policies
  • Elites
  • Participation
  • DEMATEL
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