تعیین میزان توفیق طلبی و وجدان کاری کارکنان و پیش بینی آن از طریق پایبندی به رفتارهای اخلاقی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد تحقیقات آموزشی از دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

2 دانشیار دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

چکیده

هدف پژوهش حاضر، تعیین میزان توفیق­طلبی و وجدان­کاری کارکنان و پیش­بینی آن از طریق پایبندی به رفتارهای اخلاقی کارکنان اداره­ی آموزش و پرورش شهر زاهدان ناحیه­ی یک و دو می­باشد. پژوهش حاضر از نظر هدف «کاربردی» و از نظر جمع­آوری اطلاعات، همبستگی می­باشد. جامعه­ی آماری شامل کلیه­ی کارکنان اداره­ی آموزش و پرورش زاهدان ناحیه­ی یک و دو به تعداد 223 نفر می­باشد. روش نمونه­گیری، طبقه­ای بوده و حجم نمونه با استفاده از جدول مورگان برآورد شده است. به این ترتیب با توجه به جامعه­ی 223 نفری پژوهش، حجم نمونه 138 نفر به نسبت نواحی تعیین شد. پژوهش حاضر دارای سه متغیر اصلی می­باشد که رفتارهای اخلاقی با پرسشنامه­ای از لوزیر (1993)، توفیق­طلبی با پرسشنامه­ی سپاهی (2012) و وجدان­کاری با پرسشنامه­ی کاستا و مک کرای (1992) مورد سنجش قرار گرفتند. روایی پرسشنامه­ها به صورت صوری مورد تایید اساتید قرار گرفت و پایایی پرسشنامه­ها با استفاده از آلفای کرونباخ محاسبه شد که پرسشنامه­های رفتارهای اخلاقی، توفیق­طلبی، و وجدان­کاری به ترتیب دارای پایایی مقبول 93/.، 87/.، و7/. می­باشند. در این پژوهش از دو روش توصیفی و استنباطی (آزمون­های آماری  t تک گروهی، t مستقل، ضریب همبستگی پیرسون و رگرسیون خطی) برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده­های به دست آمده از پرسشنامه استفاده شده است. یافته­های پژوهش نشان داد که کارمندان اداره­ی آموزش و پرورش زاهدان در دو ناحیه به میزان بالایی به رفتارهای اخلاقی پایبند هستند؛ توفیق­طلبی کم­تر از متوسط و وجدان­کاری بالایی دارند. بین پایبندی به رفتارهای اخلاقی با توفیق­طلبی و پایبندی به رفتارهای اخلاقی با وجدان­کاری رابطه­ی معناداری مشاهده نشد. اما بین توفیق­طلبی با وجدان­کاری رابطه­ی معنی­دار و مثبتی دیده شد. پایبندی به رفتارهای اخلاقی به میزان 3 درصد توانست توفیق­طلبی را پیش­بینی کند؛ که این میزان پیش­بینی کم می­باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of the Level of Achievement Motivation and Work Conscience Among Employees and Its Prediction through Adherence to Ethical Behaviors

نویسندگان [English]

  • Azadeh Attari 1
  • Seyed Reza Balaghat 2
1 Master of Educational Research, Universityof Sistan and Baluchestan
2 Associate Professor University of Sistan and Baluchestan
چکیده [English]

Abstract
The present study is a correlational and regression type of research, and Questionnaire is used as a data collection tool. The research sample was selected to be 138 people using Morgan table. According to findings, the employees of the Department of Education have high adherence to ethical behaviors; they have low level of achievement motivation and have moderate level of work conscience. Also, there was no significant relationship between ethical behaviors and achievement motivation variables and no significant relationship between the variable of ethical behaviors and the variable of work conscience. Adherence to ethical behavior predicts the achievement motivation by 3%.
Introduction
Conscience is the center of divine awareness and daily life and religious exercises may be a way to achieve a pure conscience (Triyuwonoa, 2015: 256). The need for achievement motivation involves an inner and strong feeling towards achievement and it is based on the expectation of performing the tasks faster and better than others or performing them better than the past (Ghasemi, 2014: 38). Ethical behaviors are also associated with corruptionit can be a factor in creating work conscience and self-control in the organization (Alavi and Etesami, 2009). Ghalavandi and Alizadeh (2013) concluded that there is a positive and significant relationship between serving leadership characteristics of managers and perceived organizationa justice and work conscience. Karimi Et al (2010) concluded that among the dimensions of organizational climate, responsibility, standard and conflict have a significant relationship with ethical behavior. According to Alvani Et al (2010: 26), the work ethics become a part of an organization's strategy. Some like Hanekom considered the most common problems in the non-ethical public sector as bribery, theft, and corruption (Puiua, 2015: 605). Moreover, Tom and Kamp Bell showed that any activity of teacher (educator) has an ethical achievement (Elena, 2011: 146).
Case study
The research population included employees of the Zahedan Department of Education that 67 people were selected from district 1 and 71 people were selected from district 2 as the sample size.
Materials and Methods
The present study is correlational and regression type. Questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. The ethical behaviors assessed by Lussier Questionnaire (2013), achievement motivation assessed by Sepahi questionnaire (2012), and work conscience assessed by Costa and McCrae questionnaire (1992). Single–group t-test, Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression were used to analyze the data.
Discussion and Results
Based on the interpretation of the score of ethical behaviors, as mean score obtained from this variable is less than 28, we conclude that the individuals have high adherence to the ethical behaviors in the organization. As the result, the level of achievement motivation in the samples is lower than the average. According to findings, the mean score of the work conscience is at the moderate level. According to results, the correlation obtained for the relationship between ethical behaviors and achievement motivation not significant. According to findings, the correlation obtained for the relationship between ethical behaviors and work conscience is not significant. According to results, work conscience increases with increasing levels of achievement motivation. As a result, the variable of ethical behaviors predicts the achievement seeking variable by 3% that this level of prediction is low. According results, predicting the work conscience through ethical behaviors, it can be stated that the index of ethical behaviors with beta (β = 0.04), t test (t = 0.55) and significance level (sig=0.57) is not at the desired status compared to its predictive variable (work conscience) and this variable cannot be considered as predictive variable for the criterion variable. As its error rate is more than 0.05, the test is not significant.
Conclusion
It was concluded that the employees of the Department of Education have high adherence to ethical behaviors. This result is consistent with the result of the study conducted by Bakhtiari (2014). It is also consistent with the result of the study conducted by Carlin and Geravis (Ghahramani, 2011). This result is not consistent with the result of the research conducted by Sepahi (2012). It is concluded that employees of the Zahedan Department of Education have moderate level of work conscience. According to research, there was no significant relationship between ethical behaviors and achievement motivation variables. Attaryan and Greenfield concluded that there was a relationship between core ethics, organizational commitment and job satisfaction (Soleymani, 2011). Moreover some like Khosravi concluded that there was a significant relationship between work ethics and organizational commitment and job satisfaction (Gahramani, 2011). According to research, also there was no significant relationship between the variable of ethical behaviors and the variable of work conscience. However, some found a significant relationship between work ethic, job satisfaction and organizational commitment in their research (Asadi Et al, 2009). Karimi Et al (2010) concluded that there was a significant relationship between organizational climate and ethical behavior. Moreover, Alkins concluded that there was a weak correlation between work conscience and job satisfaction in a Japanese manufacturing company (Hasani Et al, 2012). Based on the research, it was concluded that there was a significant and positive relationship between the achievement motivation factor and the work conscience variable, that is, an increase in one variable leads to an increases in the other variable. Moreover, Hodaei concluded that there is a significant relationship between economic factors, human relations, and value system and the conscience (Sarmad, 2009). Based on the research, it was concluded that ethical behaviors could predict achievement motivation by 3%.  In this regard, some reserachs showed that ethical behavior in the workplace affects job satisfaction and organizational commitment (Hasani Et al, 2012). Finally, according to the research, the variable of ethical behaviors cannot predict the variable of work conscience. In this regard, Mahmoodi (2012) concluded that self-actualization variable could predict the variables of work conscience.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Ethical behaviors
  • achievement motivation
  • work conscience
  • employees
  • Department of Education
  • Zahedan
1-Alavi S. A. and & Etesami, S. M K. (2009). Investigating the Factors Affecting the Successful Motivation from the Viewpoint of Religious Doctrines. Quarterly journal of management thought, 3 (2), 75-100, (in Persian).

2-Alirezaeei, N; Massah, H; & Akrami, N. (2013). Relationship between Conscience with Job Performance. Journal of Ethics in Science and Technology, 8 (2), 1-11, (in Persian).

3-Amini, S. J; Safarzadeh, H; & Ahmadi Sharif, M. (2011). Strategic review of organizational climate and ethics in national organizations. Quarterly Journal of Political Science, Strategic Defense Studies, 9 (43), 177-208, (in Persian).

4-Asadi, H; Rad, F; & Alizade Aghdam, M. B. (2009). Work Ethics with Emphasis on Organizational Factors (Case Study of Employees of Public Universities of Tabriz City). Sociology Studies Quarterly, 5 (2), 29-44, (in Persian).

5-Alvani, S. M; Hasanpoor, A; & Davari, A. (2010). Analyzing employee ethics using a pattern of ethics. Journal of Ethics in Science and Technology, 5 ( 3 & 4), 25-34, (in Persian).

6-Bakhtiari, Z. (2014). The Relationship between Thinking Styles and Disciplinary Styles with Ethical Behavior. Master's thesis in Educational Management, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, (in Persian).

7-Barati Ahmad Abadi, H; Arizee, H. R; & Noori, A. (2010). Relationship between organizational climate and work conscience with job performance. Quarterly Journal of Applied Psychology, 4(1), 65-81, (in Persian).

8-Costa P T, McCrae RR. (1992). The Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEOPI-R). In G. J. Boyle, G. Matthews & D. H. Saklofske (Eds.). Handbook of personality theory and testing. London: Sage Publications.

9-Elena, S. (2011), Reflective capability – a specific goal of a Teachers Professional Ethics Course. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 11 (2011): 145–149.

10-Hasani, M;  Haidarizade, Z; & Ghasemzade Alishahi, A. (2012). Investigating the Role and Effect of Islamic Ethics in Work and Organizational Culture on Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment among Employees of Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz. Two Quarterly Journal of Islamic Management, 20 (2), 9-32, (in Persian).

11-Khosravi, A; Shah Hosaini, R; Solati, K. (2015). Investigating the Important Factors of Success Effect on Organizational Effectiveness (Case Study: Hamadan Sports and Youth Department). First Conference on Management and Entrepreneurship in Resistance Economics, Mashhad, Iran, (in Persian).

12-Saatchi, M. (2014). Foundation of Organizational Behavior. Tehran: Virayesh, (in

13-Sarmad, Gh. A. (2009). Investigating the Factors Affecting the Conscience of High School Principals, Quarterly Journal of Educational Management RESEARCH, 1- (1). 74-61, (in Persian).

14-Sehhat, S; Atoofi, A; & Jafari, Farid. (2012). The relationship between job satisfaction, the need for control, the need to succeed and the need to earn employees power. Quarterly Journal of Management Studies, Improvement and Evolution, 22 (68), 17-32, (in Persian).

15-Sepahi, M. R. (2012). Relationship between self-esteem and need for success among high school principals in Zahedan. Master's thesis for educational management, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, (in Persian).

16-Seyed Javadin, S. R. (2007). Organizational Behavior Management. Tehran: Negahe Danesh, Second edition, , (in Persian).

17-Shafipoor Motlagh, F; Khadivi, A; & Torabinahad, M. (2012). Determining the Relationship between Organizational Climate, Leadership Style, and Organizational Justice with Organizational Successful Motivation Based on Mediation of Organizational Commitment (Case Study: Faculty Members of Islamic Azad University, Mahallat Branch). Quarterly Journal of Educational Management Research, 4 (2), 113-126, (in Persian).

18-Fahim Devin, H; Oghabaei, B; & Asadollahi, E. (2012). The Relationship between Work Conscience and Organizational Citizenship Behavior in Physical Education teachers in Mashhad 7 Districts. Quarterly Journal of Sport Sciences researches, 3 (9), 219-233, (in Persian).

19-Fathi, F; Moharram Zade, M, & Seyed Ameri, M. H. (2012). Explaining the Relationship between Organizational Socialization with the Conscience of the Employees of the General Offices of Sports and Youth in Northwest of Iran. Sport Management Studies, 5 (21), 219-233, (in Persian).

20-Ghahramani, J. (2011). Study of Work Ethics of Academic Teachers of East Azarbaijan Province to Provide a Model. Quarterly Journal of Educational Management research, 3 (2), 71-92, (in Persian).

21-Ghalavandi, H; & Alizade, M. (2013). Correlation analysis of service leadership attributes of managers, perceived organizational justice and conscientiousness among faculty members of Urmia University. Quarterly Journal of Management and Development Process. 27 (89), 3-20, (in Persian).

22-Ghasemi, B. (2014). Management of Organizational Behavior. Tehran: Sepahan, fourth edition, (in Persian).

23-Gholipoor, A. ( 2009). Management of Organizational Behavior (Individual behavior). Tehran:SAMT, (in Persian)

24-Karimi, M; Rajaeeipoor, S; & Hovaida, R. (2010). The Relationship between Organizational Climate Dimensions and Ethical Behavior among Isfahan University and Isfahan University of Medical Sciences staffs. Quarterly of Leadership and Educational Management, 4 (1),. 83-102, (in Persian).

25-Langviniene, N. & Daunoraviciute, I. (2015), Factors influencing the success of business model in the hospitality service industry, Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 213 (2015): 902 – 910.

26-Liaghatdar, M. j; Bakhtiar Nasrabadi, H; Samiee, F; & Hashemi, B. V. (2010). Investigating the Impact and Role of Factors Affecting Conscience. Journal of Applied Sociology, 22 (1), 27-40, (in Persian).

27-Liu, J.y; Yang, J. P; Yang, Y. & Liu, Y. H. (2015), The relationships among perceived organizational support, intention to remain, career success and self-esteem in Chinese male nurses. International journal of nursing sciences 2 (2015): 389 – 390.

28-Lussier, R (1993). Human Relations in organizations: A skill Building Approach. Homewood: Irwin.

29-Mahmoodi, M. (2012). Investigating the relationship between teacher's spiritual intelligence, self-esteem and conscientiousness. Master's thesis for educational management, University of Sistan and Baluchestan, (in Persian).

30-Motaghi, M. H. (2003). Fear of success and achievement of incompetence in employees, Business Management Perspective, 2 (7 & 8), 75-92, (in Persian).

31-Puiua S. (2015), Ethics Management in Public Sector – Background and Tools, Procedia Economics and Finance 23 (2015): 604 – 607.

32-Solaimani, N. (2011). The Relationship Between Managers Ethical Behavior and Teachers and Employees Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in Garmsar Schools. Quarterly Journal of New Thoughts in Educational Sciences, 7 (1), 11-27, (in Persian).

33-Triyuwonoa, I. (2015), A wakening the conscience inside: the spirituality of code of ethics for professional accountants. Social and Behavioral Sciences 172 (2015): 254 – 261.