بازپردازی خط مشی های تولید برق با رویکرد مدیریت سبز (مطالعه تطبیقی کشورهای دانمارک، آلمان و ایران)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری مدیریت دولتی، پردیس البرز دانشگاه تهران

2 استاد مدیریت دولتی، دانشکده مدیریت دانشگاه تهران

3 استاد اقتصاد، دانشکده مدیریت دانشگاه تهران

4 استادیار اقتصاد، دانشگده اقتصاد دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

10.22111/jmr.2019.4744

چکیده

دستیابی به انرژی­های پاک چالش بزرگ کشورهای در حال توسعه است زیرا انرژی به عنوان یک عامل سیاسی، نقش مهمی در توسعه اقتصادی-اجتماعی دارد. نفوذ بالای برق در زندگی روزمره، اهمیت تدوین خط­مشی­های مالی و تنظیمی مناسب تولید انرژی سبز با هدف حفظ محیط­زیست و منابع موجود آشکار می­شود. هدف این مطالعه تدوین مدلی جامع برای ایران؛ برگرفته از کشورهای آلمان و دانمارک است. این پژوهش از نوع کیفی است که ابتدا به مطالعه ادبیات (مقالات علمی، گزارش­های ملی و بین­المللی، قوانین تدوین شده) پرداخته است. سپس نتایج حاصل از مرور ادبیات در دو کشور هدف، با شرایط فعلی ایران (برگرفته از مرور قوانین و ادبیات علمی بعلاوه مصاحبه با خبرگان در مرکز پژوهش­های مجلس جمهوری اسلامی ایران، وزارت نیرو و نیز سازمان مپنا) مقایسه و در انتها مرجعی جامع برای خط­مشی­گذاری توسعه انرژی سبز ارائه شد. مهمترین یافته­ها شامل ابزارهای مالی و تنظیمی حامی انرژی سبز و نیز فاصله قابل توجه ایران با دو کشور هدف، از نظر میزان به­کارگیری سوخت­های فسیلی، کاربست انرژی­های تجدیدپذیر (RE)، انتشار دی­اکسیدکربن است. لذا به منظور ارتقاء جایگاه RE، ایران موظف به اصلاح ساختار تخصیص سوخت­های رایگان به نیروگاه­ها، توقف تولید انرژی صلح­آمیز هسته­ای، تدوین بسته مالیاتی سبز، اعمال معافیت­های مالیاتی برای مشارکت­کنندگان، تخصیص یارانه برای مشارکت در توسعه تجدیدپذیرها و تعویض سیستم­های فرسوده، اعطای وام­های کم­بهره و یا بی­بهره، آگاه­سازی شهروندان و مالکیت محلی، تسهیل روند مشارکت، اجرای طرح­های اجباری خرید انرژی سبز از جمله موارد توصیه شده در مدل پیشنهادی است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Reviewing Electricity Policies by Green Management Approach (Comparison of Denmark and Germany with Iran)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Narges Salehi Shahrabi 1
  • Ali Asghar Pourezzat 2
  • Vahid Vahid Mahmodi 3
  • Mohamad Ghasemi 4
1 Ph.D. in Public Administration, University of Tehran
2 Prof. public Management, University of Tehran, Iran
3 Prof. University of Tehran, Iran.
4 Assistante Prof . University of Allameh Tabataba'i Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Achieving green energies is an important challenge for all developing countries. The aim of this study is to review green electricity production policies in advanced countries such as Germany and Denmark and then developing a comprehensive model for developing countries like Iran.
The most significant findings include the financial and regulatory incentives and tools applied in Denmark and Germany such as Feed-in Tariff, Renewable Portfolio Standard and Tradable Green Certificate which are applicable in other states.
Some significant policies in the recommended model are as pricing the electricity, phasing out nuclear energy production, setting green tax package, tax-exempting, subsidizing renewable energy (RE) development, dedicating soft-interest or no-interest loans, implementing informing programs about local ownership for citizens, facilitating the participating process, performing obligatory plans to purchase green electricity for governmental sectors and etc.
Introduction
Electricity is highly penetrated in our lives and various renewable resources and non-renewable resources can be utilized for its production, though international justice and moral approaches to the environment making financial and regulatory energy policy, especially electricity more important (Meyer, 2007, 347-8). By considering energy sector as the main source of pollution, the government should identify some measurements; that the level of interventions are vary by awareness and the intensity of the issues (Lipp, 2007, 5485)
Unfortunately, failure in the policy making and implementation in Iran, remains the need to implement appropriate policy and stronger governmental support for green electricity. So, the review of the best relevant practices can provide clear answer for Iran. this survey attempts to offer an optimal reference for policymakers to make the electricity production greener. Germany and Denmark has been chosen due to their similar and different governmental structure with Iran, and also their impressive success in generating green electricity.
The main specifications of the success of Danish energy policies includes; broad and sustained political support for low-carbon energies, comprehensive approach for energy planning, active stakeholder participation, informed decision making, strong international cooperation (Energy policies of IEA countries Denmark 2017 review, 2017, 29).
In Germany, factors such as; developing effective policies with the facilitation of a strong central government, existence of interest groups and the formation of party alliances, the provision of feed-in tariffs through the public electricity bills instead of governmental budget, liberalization of the market and finally, a bit of luck have a significant effect on Germany’s success (Wüstenhagen & Bilharz, 2006, 1694-5).
However, one of the major challenges of Iran’s electricity industry was to disregard the efficiency of power plants (Peimanbank et al., 2010, 59). However, in the period of 1997-2007 the tendency towards steamed plants decreased and natural gas plants increased significantly (Peimanbank et al., 2010, 62). Since 2010, according to the fourth and fifth development plans, the power ministry was obliged to purchase renewable electricity from the private sector. Also, the ministry of power, have done long-term contracts for guaranteeng the purchase of electricity generated of renewable sources and clean energies (peimanbank et al., 2010, 68). The 2025 Strategic Plan for Sustainable Development of The Ministry of power in 2011 aimed to Secure the energy supply, diversify the economic by the energy portfolio resources (Strategic plan for 2025 of the power ministry, 2011, 46-60). And the Sixth Development Plan in 2016 aimed to make an increase in the share of RE plants, with the priority of nongovernmental investment (Sixth Five-Year Development Plan for 2016 to 2020).
 
Methodology
A systematic review has been done for data gathering. Then a thematic analysis has been done to find an effective financial and regulatory instruments package to develop green power production. Then, some interviews with authorities and experts have been done to localize the package.
 Findings
The most significant findings include the financial and regulatory tools and policies applied in Denmark and Germany. The result shows a considerable difference between Iran and the two other developed countries regarding the level of utilizing fossil fuels, RE, and CO2 emission.
Conclusion
To promote RE usage in Iran, some significant financial, regulatory and financial-regulatory policy recommendation are as follow: Increasing the price of fossil fuels to compete with the renewable technologies, Forcing the utilities to pay more for the green electricity, Tax on CO2 and SO2, Phase-in of the taxes, tax exemption for bio-fuels, Allocating subsidies for a specified period of time, Determining the annual use  of RE, More subsidizing to less favorable RE, Offering low-interest loan, Aiming to install specific capacity, Setting long and short-term aims to reduce a specific amount of CO2, Offering governmental grants for installation of heat pumps or solar heating collectors, Developing guidelines for architects to develop RE in new constructions, Funding some plans to scrap old and inappropriate situated systems, Developing a certificate scheme for inefficient or disable system based on a minimum level, Develope local ownership to buy shares of renewable systems, Implementing educational initiatives such as Green Plan to increase local knowledge, Creating associations for a variety of renewable resources, Developing multi-year and successive programs for R&D, Holding public auctions for a specified amount and type of renewable resource, Plan to support pilot systems.Furthermore, It should be noted that success is not accidental and is the result of proper planning, seriousness in implementation, and commitment to an accurate assessment after implementation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Policy
  • Financial and Regulatory incentives
  • Green Electricity
1-Amini, F., Saber Fattahi, L., Soleimanpour, P., Golghahremani, N., Farmad, M., Tavanpour, M., Khodi, M. (2015). Energy balance sheet 2013. Electricity and Energy Department, Office of Planning for Electricity and Energy: Ministry of Energy of the Islamic Republic of Iran (In Persian)

2-Couture, T. D., Cory, K., Kreycik, C., & Williams, E. (2010). Policymaker's guide to feed-in tariff policy design (No. NREL/TP-6A2-44849). National Renewable Energy Lab.(NREL), Golden, CO (United States).

3-Darvish Tavangar, M. (2016). Expert Comments on the Statute of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Organization (SATBA). Consultative Research Center of the Islamic Republic of Iran (In Persian)

4-Detailed report of Iran's power industry for strategic management. (2016). Ministry of Energy of the Islamic Republic of Iran (In Persian)

5-Dong, C. G. (2012). Feed-in tariff vs. renewable portfolio standard: An empirical test of their relative effectiveness in promoting wind capacity development. Energy Policy, 42, 476-485.

6-Environmental report for Danish electricity and CHP for 2017 status. (2018). Energinet report. Site Information: http://en.energinet.dk/About-our-report/Reports/Environmental-Report-2017

7-Fouquet, D., & Johansson, T. B. (2008). European renewable energy policy at crossroads—Focus on electricity support mechanisms. Energy policy, 36(11), 4079-4092.

8-Holdaway, E., & Dodwell, C. (2015). A Guide to INDCs: Intended Nationally Determined Contributions.

9-Khalatbari, F. (2014). National Perspective on Iran's Energy. Consultative Research Center of the Islamic Republic of Iran (In Persian)

10-Lauber, V., & Mez, L. (2006). Renewable electricity policy in Germany, 1974 to 2005. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, 26(2), 105-120.

11-Lehtonen, M., & Nye, S. (2009). History of electricity network control and distributed generation in the UK and Western Denmark. Energy Policy, 37(6), 2338-2345.

12-Lipp, J. (2007). Lessons for effective renewable electricity policy from Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom. Energy policy, 35(11), 5481-5495.

13-Lund, H., & Mathiesen, B. V. (2009). Energy system analysis of 100% renewable energy systems—The case of Denmark in years 2030 and 2050. Energy, 34(5), 524-531

14-Lund, H. (2007). Renewable energy strategies for sustainable development. Energy, 32(6), 912-919.

15-Meyer, N. I. (2007). Learning from wind energy policy in the EU: lessons from Denmark, Sweden and Spain. Environmental Policy and Governance, 17(5), 347-362.

16-Midttun, A., Gautesen, K., & Meyer, N. (2006, December). Green electricity in the Nordic countries. In Realise Forum Country Reports.

17-Mehrazma, I. (2008). Report on 100 years of oil and the budget for protecting oil revenues. Islamic Parliament Research Center of the Islamic Republic Of IRAN (In Persian)

18-Morris, C. (2018). German energy consumption grew in 2017, emissions stable. Energy Transition the Global Energiewende. Retrived from https://energytransition.org/2018/01/german-energy-consumption-grew-in-2017-emissions-stable/

19-Mohajeri, P., Totunchi Maleki, S., Pile Foroush, M., Mousouri Nick, S. H. (2014). Necessity of reviewing and amending the law on targeting subsidies. Economic Research Department of Office of Planning and Budgetary Studies (In Persian)

20-Oyedepo, S. O. (2012). Energy and sustainable development in Nigeria: the way forward. Energy, Sustainability and Society, 2(1), 15.

21-European energy market reform (country profile: Germany). (2015). Deloitte Conseil, Zurich. 1;16

22-Peimanbank, A., Keipour, J., Akbari, M.R (2010). Energy Management in Iran (Current Situation and Solutions). Tehran: Islamic parliament Research Center of Iran (In Persian)

23-Report on the status of the future electricity sector and plans. (2015). Deputy of Research and Human Resources. Ministry of Energy of the Islamic Republic of Iran (In Persian)

24-The Sixth Five-Year Plan for the Development of the Islamic Republic of Iran. 2016- 2020 (In Persian)

25-The Fifth Five-Year Plan for the Development of the Islamic Republic of Iran. 2011- 2015 (In Persian)

26-The Ministry of Energy of the Islamic Republic of Iran in 2025- Strategic plan. (2011). the group of Strategic Planning of Power Ministry of the Energy of the Islamic Republic of Iran (In Persian)

27-Van der Vleuten, E., & Raven, R. (2006). Lock-in and change: Distributed generation in Denmark in a long-term perspective. Energy policy, 34(18), 3739-3748.

28-Wüstenhagen, R., & Bilharz, M. (2006). Green energy market development in Germany: effective public policy and emerging customer demand. Energy policy, 34(13), 1681-1696.

29-49 Years of Power Industry in Mirror from 1967 to 2015 .(2018). Power Ministry of the Islamic Republic of Iran (In Persian)

31-https://countryeconomy.com/gdp/germany