عنوان مقاله [English]
In recent years, a new approach on the organizational justice investigations is underway, addressing the adherence of managers to justice in the organization. This research was carried out quantitatively .The research methodology considering the purpose is descriptive, and considering the subjects of the study is a fundamental research. The present article is to design a model for adherence of managers to organizational justice (focusing on individual and situational features) in governmental organizations. The data for this study was collected through cluster sampling from 356 managers of governmental organizations in Fars province. The structural equation method was used for the analysis of data using Smart Plus software. The findings reveal that there are five personal factors (justice awareness, justice judgment, justice motivation, justice self-efficacy and justice personality) and three situational factors (organizational, managerial and subordinates characteristics) relating to manager’s adherence to organizational justice. Moreover, the results show that personal factors were more important than the situational ones. Among the 5 dimensions, the main dimensions of individual factors, motivation of justice and justice awareness, and among the three dimensions of the situation, the organization factors have the most importance in adherence to the rules of justice by managers.
Organizational justice is recognized as a moral or religious decision, fair and legal)Pekurinen et al,2017( .Organizational justice is a major attitude for employees and organizations(Swalhiet al, 2017). Initial research in the field of organizational justice focuses more on employee responses to justice in the organization, and extensive research in this field has greatly enhanced the literacy of organizational justice. Hundreds of studies show that adherence or violation of organizational justice forms the attitudes and behavior of employees in the workplace (Colquitt et al., 2001).When employees believe that behaviors are fair in the organization, positive attitudes and behaviors such as trust, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance, citizenship behavior and positive organizational behaviors appear (Khan and Rashid, 2015) and in contrast to the perception of injustice, it creates negative attitudes toward work and organization, which results in the external and objective factors of destructive and deviant behaviors (Yildiz and Alpkan, 2015).When employees believe that they are treated unfairly, negative attitudes and behaviors such as desertion, theft, vandalism and deviant behaviors in the workplace increases (Ambrose et al, 2002).
The present study is a philosophical study of fundamentalism positivism paradigm and is a quantitative study.This research is descriptive in terms of purpose. The research method is a survey, the most important advantages of which are the ability to generalize the results. Also, the method of doing this research is based on confirmatory factor analysis. Data were collected through archival studies and standard questionnaire and researcher-made questionnaire.
The statistical population of this study is the managers of various levels of management (directorate, deputy and supervisor) in 34 government agencies under the current budget of Fars province. In this research, cluster sampling method was used. In this way, governmental organizations of Fars province were divided into four sub-systems of economic, political, cultural and administrative according to the classification of Pirezat (2017, p. 261-266) and then distributed randomly among the managers of selected organizations. The sample size needed to run the survey was 384 people. In order to ensure that the questionnaire was completed, all 410 questionnaires were distributed to all managers. A total of 384 questionnaires were received (93% return ratio). Of the 356 complete and correct questionnaires, 359 questionnaires were selected and analysed.
The results of the analysis show the confirmatory factor of individual factors, each of the 5 dimensions related to the individual factors confirmed and the coefficients indicate that the identified dimensions have a high correlation with the relevant variable (individual factors) and can well explain the main level. Also, among 16 components and 56 indicators identified for individual factors, according to the significant number of "ability of a person to adhere to the rules of justice" among the indicators of self-efficacy of justice "endurance compliance with the rules of justice" among the relevant indicators The personality of justice was rejected and finally 54 indicators were identified for oversized agents DU confirmed.
The factor analysis confirms the positional factors that all three dimensions related to organizational factors are confirmed and the obtained coefficients show that the identified dimensions have a high correlation with their respective variables (situational factors) and can well explain the main level.
Finally, the factor analysis confirms the adherence of managers to the rules of justice, which both the individual factors and the status factor associated with the adherence of managers to the laws of justice are confirmed and the coefficients show that identified components have high correlation with the variable of adherence to the rules of justice and they have been able to explain the variable.
Discussion and Results
The findings of the study indicate that, the identification of 8 individual dimensions and situational factors that affects the adherence of managers to the rules of the organization's justice. Calculating and analyzing the indicators of fitness, the present research model showed that designing a model to form the individual factors of adherence of managers to the rules of justice, including awareness of justice, fair judgment, motivation of justice, self-efficacy of justice and the personality of justice, and the collected data is well-fitted. Besides motivation for justice, awareness to justice at the individual level, is of paramount importance for adhering to the laws of justice. Some of the individual factors in this study are based on findings from studies by Eib et al. (2015), Johnson et al. (2014), Blair and Chen (2012), Ambersaws and Schmink (2009), Greenberg (2006) Associates (2006). In order to adhere to the rules of justice, it is first necessary to identify managers with issues related to justice, and apply norms and rules of justice on issues, and that the motive for fair behavior must be stronger than other motives and that managers have the skills to conduct fair behavior and have a fair character.
On the other hand, the factors of the status of adherence of managers to the rules of justice, including organizational, managerial and subordinate characteristics, are well suited to the collected data and organizational factors are most important for adherence to the rules of justice. Some of the situational factors in this study are consistent with the findings of the studies of Eib (2015), Scott et al. (2014, 2009), Ambersaws and Schmechan (2009), Freischwhee and Kleeb (2008). The adherence of managers to the rules of justice in the organization is made even better if people who are familiar with the rules of justice have the right to motivate others and have a personality, to be elected and hired in the organization, and by teaching the issues of justice to managers, the five components of individual factors affecting the adherence of administrators to the rules Justice can be strengthened and ultimately, by creating a fair atmosphere, the adherence of managers to the rules of justice in the organization can be supported.