شناسایی شاخص های موثر بر شهروندی با تاکید بر ارتقای مردم سالاری در سازمان های دولتی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری مدیریت دولتی(رفتار سازمانی)، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

2 استاد گروه مدیریت دولتی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران

چکیده

در دنیای امروز واژه شهروند یکی از مبانی فکری مردم سالاری و زندگی مردم سالارانه به شمار می­آید. از آنجا که تحقیق حاضر، به دنبال شناسایی شاخص های شهروندی با تاکید بر ارتقای مردم سالاری در سازمان­های دولتی است، بدین منظور ابتدا، نظر 15 نفر از نخبگان مدیریت دولتی از طریق فن دلفی، در خصوص شاخص­های تأثیرگذار بر مولفه­های شهروندی، سازمان­های دولتی و شهروند محوری مردم سالار اخذ گردیده و پس از جمع بندی و طراحی مدل پیشنهادی، برازش آن با تدوین پرسشنامه و توزیع آن در بین 385 تن از کارکنان سازمان تامین اجتماعی و وزارت علوم، تحقیقات و فناوری در شهر تهران مورد پیمایش قرار گرفته است. تجزیه و تحلیل آماری داده­های تحقیق در بخش کیفی با کمک فن دلفی و در بخش استنباطی با کمک نرم افزار SPSS صورت پذیرفته است. پس از سنجش روایی و پایایی سوالات، به کمک تحلیل عاملی تاییدی، مدل ترسیمی با 3 مولفه و 13 شاخص، تایید گردید. یافته­ها منجر به طراحی مدل شهروند محوری مردم سالار در سازمان­های دولتی شد که داده­های فاز کمی نیز همبستگی بالای گویه­های شاخص ها را مورد تایید قرار می دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Identification the Key Indicators Effecting on Citizenship with Emphasis on Promoting Democracy in Public Organizations

نویسندگان [English]

  • Nargess Ahangar 1
  • Reza Rasouli 2
1 PhD Student in Organizational Behavior Management، Payame Noor University، Tehran، Iran.
2 Professor. of Organizational Behavior Management، Payame Noor University، Tehran، Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
In today's world, the word citizen is one of the foundations of democracy and democratic life. Since the present study seeks to identify citizenship indicators emphasizing the promotion of democracy in public organizations, at first, the views of 15 public administration elites through Delphi technic have been taken into consideration regarding the indicators affecting citizenship, public organizations and democratic citizenship. After collecting and designing the proposed model, its fitness has been scrutinized by compiling a questionnaire and distributing it among 385 employees of the social security organization and ministry of science research and technology in Tehran. Statistical analysis was done in the qualitative section. The validity and reliability of the research questionnaires were tested at first and after proving the normal distribution of the data, the model was designed. Result expresses the proper fit of the model of a democratic Citizenship in Public Organization, which also confirms the high correlation between the two elements of the quantitative phase data.
Introduction
The word “citizen” is not literally defined in public dictionary such as Moeen, Amid,…. However in bilingual dictionary such as Hayyem and Arianpoor, citizen is defined as heritage, native, townsman, which is free from military service. In one volume Persian contemporary dictionary, citizen is a person from a city or country and holds the rights it holds (Esmaeeli, 2001). In political dictionary, citizen is defined as “who has civil rights or privileges under the constitutional laws of a country” (Rezapour, 2006: 9). Different communities have different perspectives on what constitutes citizenship, the rights that citizens are given and the duties they must perform in order to achieve these rights. Citizenship rights are a combination of two words of rights and citizenship and its historical past is not transparent; citizenship rights are legal for citizens of the country in relation to public institutions such as political rights (Jafari langroodi, 2014: 1370). New texts consider governance as a way in which policymakers make decisions that make decisions possible for the realization of citizenship rights (Zahedi, & Ebrahiompour, 2012).the concept of citizenship and its rights in today's world is considered as the most important criterion of the legitimacy of democratic systems and is highly valued. So that even undemocratic governments use to justify public opinion. On the other hand, since the 1990s, managementism and citizen oriented, customer oriented are become important in public organizations. According to the philosophy and mission of the public administration is to provide the interests of the public, so all people and citizens are considered to be customer in public organizations (Hughes, 2018). The satisfaction of citizens and clients increases public confidence and loyalty, national consensus, public participation and national authority that in the current world are considered as the main indicators of measuring efficiency and development of the administrative and political system (Kazemi, 2006). Unfortunately in recent years there has been no research in our country on what to do and identify the indicators of democratic citizenship and their impact on the performance of public organizations. Moreover, the lack of a course on the rights and duties of citizenship in our university courses has caused the poor people's awareness of their rights. As the result of present research the more and more the governmental and public organizations are introduced to this issue and the conscious participation of citizens in public organizations providing services and products to improve the performance of organizations  as far as possible.
Case Study
 The participants in the qualitative sector include 15 public administration elites and in quantitative section, a sample consisted of 385 employees of the social security organization and ministry of science research and technology in Tehran.
Materials and Methods
The approach of this research is both quantitative and qualitative. Various methods used through the data collection that is firstly an interview was carried out and then by using a questionnaire data were collected. In addition, a deep research carried out via universities, digital libraries and databases. Statistical analysis was done in the qualitative section using Delphi technique. Therefore, the validity and reliability of the research questionnaires were tested at first and after proving the normal distribution of the data، using correlation.
Discussion and Results
The results showed that there is a significant relationship between the components of democratic citizenship, public organization and Human factors. The indicators of accountability and compensation as well as the rule of law directly affect citizens by giving citizens the right to vote and democratic participation of citizens.
Therefore, the model shows the relationship between the components of democratic citizenship and the components of public organization and Human factors

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Citizen
  • Citizenship
  • Democracy
  • Public Organizations
1-Abbaszade, H. (2005). Public relations for social participation and solidarity, Shargh newspaper, recovery.17404125. (In Persian)

2-Alvaani, M. & Danaeifard, Hasan. (2013). An introduction to the Philosophy of public administration theories. Tehran: Saffar Publishing. (In Persian)

3-Antoni, A. & Seimor, M. (1997). Political Sociology, (Translator: A, Pishevari). Ahvaz: Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz. (In Persian)

4-Boshiriye, H. (2013). Democracy lessons for all (Fourth edition). Tehran: Negah Moaser Institute. (In Persian)

5-Chiodo, J. & Leisa, A. M. (2005). What do students have to say about citizenship? an analysis of the concept of citizenship among secondary education student. Journal of social studies research, 31 (2), 1-23.

6-Ebrhimpour, H. (2016). A study of the role of good governance in governance effectiveness, Tehran, National Conference on Management Elite.(In Persian)

7-Esmaeeli, R. (2001). Types of citizenship rights in the constitutional law of the Islamic Republic of Iran. Isfahan, Farhang Journal , No.22, 106-111. (In Persian)

8-Hooman, H A. (1995). Factor analysis: difficulties and its bottlenecks. Journal of psychology and educational sciences, Vol.35, No.2. ( In Persian)

9-Hosseini, M. (2005). Civil rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran (thesis of master degree). Shiraz. Islamic Azad University. (In Persian)

10-Hughes, O. (2018). Public management and administration, (Translator: Alvani, Khalili Sheverini, Memarzade). Tehran: Morvarid Publishing.( In Persian)

11-Huntington, S. (2013). Political system in societies undergoing change (3 Edition), (Translator: Mohsen Salasi). Tehran: Nashre Elm.( In Persian)

12-Jafari Langroodi, M J. (2014).Wide terminology of law (6 edition). Tehran: Gange Danesh Publishing. (In Persian)

13-Kazemi, S. A. A. (2006). Political management and government policy (5 edition). Tehran: Islamic Culture Publishing Office.(In Persian)

14-Kennedy, K. (1997). Citizenship education and the modern state. London: Flamer Press.

15-Naghibzade, M. A. H. (2016). An introduction to philosophy (13 edition ). Tehran: Tahoori Library Publishing.( In Persian)

16-Pourezzat, A.A. &  Hashemi Kasvaee, M. (2016). Recognition of public management and administration knowledge identity. Public Management Researches Journal, Vol. 8, Issue. 30, 5-31. (In Persian)

17-Rezapour, A. A. (2006). Detailed explanation of legal and human rights. Thehran: Arian Publishing. (In Persian)

18-Sarafi, M.& Abdolahi ,M. (2008). Analyzing the concept of citizenship and assessing its status laws, Journal of geographical research, No.63, 115-134.( In Persian)

19-Sarookhani, B. (2014). An introduction to family sociology (20 edition). Tehran: Soroosh Publishing. (In Persian)

20-Sheikh, S. & Rian Beise, Z. (2011). Corporate social responsibility or cause‐related marketing? the role of cause specificity of CSR. Journal of consumer marketing, Vol. 28, Issue. 1, 27-39.

21-Ubius,U. & Alas, R. (2012). The impact of corporate social responsibility on innovation climate. Kaunas University of Technology, Vol 23, No3, 90-110.

22-Yaghoubi, E. (2017).Good governance and health promoting of administrative system; explaining the role of electronic government, Public Management Researches Journal, Vol. 10, Issue 37, 203-222. (In Persian)

23-Zahedi, .& Ebrahiompour, H. (2012). Sustainable governance (with emphasis on environmental protection).Tehran: Samt Publishing. (In Persian)