طراحی و تبیین مدل توانمندی بین‌المللی شرکت‌های صادرکننده محصولات کشاورزی برای ورود به بازارهای جهانی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی،تهران، ایران

2 استاد، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران ، ایران

3 دانشیار، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران ، ایران.

چکیده

هدف این مقاله، طراحی و تبیین مدل توانمندی بین‌المللی‌شدن شرکت‌های صادرکننده محصولات صنعت کشاورزی است؛ لذا تحقیق ابتدا با رویکرد کیفی، براساس نظریه داده بنیاد هدایت شده است، البته پژوهش از نظر نوع، مبتنی بر روش آمیخته است. این تحقیق بر اساس نحوه گردآوری و ماهیت داده‌ها، تحقیق اکتشافی- توصیفی قلمداد می‌شود اما از نظر هدف توسعه‌ای- کاربردی می‌باشد. مدل تحقیق با گردآوری داده‏ها از طریق مصاحبه عمیق با 20 تن از خبرگان دانشگاهی، مدیران ارشد و کارشناسان شرکت‌های جامعه پژ‍‍وهش، با تکیه بر مبانی نظری، پیشینه مرتبط و سه مرحله کدگذاری: کدگذاری باز، کدگذاری محوری و کدگذاری مطابق نظریه داده‏بنیاد، نهایی گردید. اعتبار داده‌های روش کیفی به روش نیومن لیکن پایایی و روایی روش کمّی مطابق ضریب آلفای کرونباخ و تحلیل عاملی تأییدی است. برای ارزیابی مدل، از خبرگان نظرسنجی به عمل آمد، سپس با نرم‏افزارهای SPSS و LISREL، داده‏ها، بررسی و تحلیل گردیدند. در نهایت، مدل پیشنهادی توانمندی بین‌المللی جهت ورود به بازارهای بین‌المللی با 6 مؤلفه، 15 بُعد، 119 شاخص و 6 راهبرد طراحی و ارائه شد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Designing and Explaining the International Capability Model of Agricultural Exporters to Enter the Global Markets

نویسندگان [English]

  • Fereydon Hemmati 1
  • Mohammad Reza Hamidizadeh 2
  • Bahman Hajipour 3
  • Shahriar Azizi 3
1 PhD Student, Shahid Beheshti University
2 Professor, Shahid Beheshti University
3 Associate professor, Shahid Beheshti University
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Importance and necessity of exports by entering the international and global markets emphasis that exporting companies need to have the enabling model for entering those markets. The aim's paper is to design and explain the internationalization capability model of ag
ricultural export companies. Therefore, the research has first been guided by a qualitative approach based on the grounded theory; of course, the research type is based on the mixed method. This research based on the collection and the nature of the data is exploratory-descriptive one; meanwhile, it is applied-development type based on its objectives. The international capability model of exporting companies by collecting data through in-depth interviews with 20 university experts, senior executives and experts from agricultural export companies in Qazvin province, based on the scientific background, the related literature review and three stages of coding: open coding, axial coding and selected coding in the grounded theory process were finalized. The qualitative data validly is based on Newman's method, but the reliability and validity of the quantitative method are consistent with the Cronbach's alpha coefficient and the confirmatory factor analysis. A sample of experts was used to assess the capability model; then, the data was analyzed by using SPSS and LISREL software. Finally, the proposed international capability model of entering the international markets was developed with 6 concepts, 15 components, 119 indicators and 6 strategies.
 
 
Introduction
Considering the importance of exports and entry into international and global markets, significant evidence suggests the growth and tendency of export companies to create empowerment patterns for entry into international markets. But despite the attractiveness of this concept, it was not easy to achieve this goal in practice and has brought challenges.
Case study
The research has first been guided by a qualitative approach based on the grounded theory; of course, the research type is based on the mixed method. The international capability model of exporting companies by collecting data through in-depth interviews with 20 university experts, senior executives and experts from agricultural export companies in Qazvin province, based on the scientific background, the related literature review and three stages of coding: open coding, axial coding and selected coding in the grounded theory process were finalized. The data was analyzed by using SPSS and LISREL software.
Materials and Methods
The present study was designed and implemented with the aim of developing an international capability model for agricultural export companies to enter world markets in two qualitative and quantitative parts. In qualitative method, the method of grounded theory was used in three stages to extract dimensions, indexes and elaboration of international capability model: a: Encoding open and extracting indicators of international capability model; b: Axial coding and extraction of dimensions of international capability model; c: Selective coding and extraction of components of the international empowerment model. After designing the international capability model, in the quantitative section, the capability indicators of the international model, a researcher-made questionnaire (companies exporting agricultural products in Qazvin province) was distributed. After analyzing the demographic data, the normality of the research data through Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and calculating the reliability of the instrument was calculated using SPSS software. Using SPSS software to calculate confirmatory factor analysis, path analysis (model relations) and fitting the conceptual model of the research, modeling the equations Structural (LISREL) has been used.
Discussion and Results
Determining international capability model indicators: In order to be aware of the experts' opinion about the determining indicators, researcher must to develop the international capability model of agricultural exporters to enter world markets. Thus, he conducted 20 interviews with university experts, senior managers and experts from agricultural export companies in Qazvin province. Model Indices after the interview, in the first stage and open source coding, the data was categorized by the method’s grounded theory and after the stage, the needed data extracted. This eventually led to the extraction of 119 indicators.
Determination of dimensions of the international capability model: Dimensions of the model in the second phase based on the axial coding was categorized by the method’s grounded theory and after this stage, the needed data extracted. This ultimately led to the extraction of 15 dimensions as follow: Confronting export risks; Tax breaks / tax breaks; Training; Improving the ability, skills and competencies of management; Improving international marketing capabilities; Improving the capabilities of technology; Developing specialized infrastructure; Establishing specialized entities; Supporting customers; Improving environmental conditions for economic activists; Public infrastructure; support in acquiring financial resources; social responsibility; creating value; developing and improving relations with international markets.
Determining the main components of the research model: based on the third stage of selective coding, components were categorized by the method’s grounded theory.  After this stage, the needed data extracted. This ultimately led to the extraction of six components: Encouraging, stimulating and motivating exports; Empowering and enhancing international capabilities; Facilitating export development; establishing a framework for export development; Advantageous approaches; Leaders in entering the international market.
The main research question: What is the international capability model for agricultural export companies to enter the global market? The answer of this question is: The international capability model for agricultural exporters to enter the global markets after the interview was designed based on three stages of coding (open, axial, selective). The proposed model has six main components (encouragement, stimulation and motivation for exports; empowerment and enhancement of international capabilities; facilitating export development; establishing a framework for export development; advocacy approaches; international market entry strategies); 15 indicators; 119 indicators; and 6 Strategy is.
Conclusion
The model presented in this research can provide the ground for expanding exports and entry into global markets for export companies and enables them to extract comprehensive plans and measures for improvement along with a comprehensive pathology of their export system. Assess them in the model of empowerment process. The research capability model by possessing a comprehensive system structure with a new orientation in the developed models for entering the global markets has a strong theoretical background and has been refined by university and industry experts. The results of the research show that the development of exports and entering the world markets, in the first stage, requires the existence of a suitable hospital and companies capable of having the resources and capabilities needed for export. This finding is based on a resource-based approach that recognizes the competitive advantage of firms based on the firm's resources and capabilities; that is, what directly affects the firm's export performance, capabilities and capabilities within the organization, and many policies and the master plan, ultimately, have an impact on export development by increasing their capabilities and capabilities. Hence, the empowerment component and its dimensions are considered as the main axis in the model of the international capability of agricultural export companies to enter the global markets. In this regard, it is possible to facilitate the acquisition of companies by improving the capabilities, skills and competencies of management; improving international marketing capabilities; enhancing the capabilities of technology and training to enhance the ability and capabilities of companies. The implications of empowering and enhancing the organizational capabilities of export companies, improving the quality and desirability of exported goods, reducing the cost of production and supply of exported goods, facilitating entry into the global and international markets, increasing the access of customers to export goods, creating an optimal image of export goods, increasing penetration and sustainable period in export markets and as a result of expanding exports and entering world markets. Therefore, the entry of export companies into world markets and export development is only possible if it is provided with suitable infrastructure for export, infrastructure is facilitated, diversified capabilities and a suitable environment for stimulation and ultimately taking into account the advantages of the benefits. And finally, taking the creative advantages, optimize strategies are being developed and implemented.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Globalization
  • International capability model
  • Readiness for entry
  • Global markets
  • Agricltural products
1-Alvarez, R., & López, R. A. (2008). Entry and exit in international markets: Evidence from Chilean data. Review of International Economics, 16(4), 692-708.

2-Amini Khyabani, G.R., Hamdi, K., & Vazifeh Dost, H. (2016). Identifying the Factors Affecting the Formulation of Entry into Global Markets Strategies (Based on Theory of Strategic Reference Points), Second National Conference on Marketing Research, Tehran, Narcish Information Institute .(In Persian)

3-Anderson, E., & Gatignon, H. (1986).Modes of foreign entry:A transaction cost analysis and propositions. Journal of international business studies,17(3),1-26.

4-Appelbaum, S. H., & Gallagher, J. (2000). The competitive advantage of organizational learning. Journal of Workplace Learning, 12(2), 40-56.

5-Asia-Pacific Economic Coopertion (2013). Directory of initiatives to assist small and medium enterprises access global market.

6-Barney, J. B. (2000). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Advances in Strategic Management, 17(1), 203-227.

7-Buckley, P. J; Ghauri, P. N. (1999). The internationalization of the firm, 2nd edition. International Thomson Business Press.

8-Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2015). Basics of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

9-Czinkota, M. R. (1982). Export development strategies: US promotion policy. New York: Praeger.

10-Ferril, o. C., Hartline, Michael (2014). Marketing Strategy: Lessons and Case Studies, Tehran, World Economics Publishing.

11-Hamidizadeh, M. R., & Jamalih Bastami, B. (2018). Designing and Explaining the Dynamic Divisional Model of the International Oil Products Market in Iran, Quarterly of Commercial Management, Tehran University: Volume 10, Issue 1, spring, pp. 96-73. (In Persian)

12-Hamidizadeh, M. R., & Zargaranyazid, M. (2013). Explaining and assessing the readiness of Iranian small and medium enterprises to enter international markets (Case Study: Food Companies), Entrepreneurship Development Quarterly, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages 174-155. (In Persian)

13-Hamidizadeh, M. R., & Zargaranyazid, M. (2016). Strategies for entry and preservation of regional and global markets, Third edition, Shahid Beheshti University Press. (In Persian)

14-Johanson, J., & Vahlne, J. E. (1977). The internationalization process of the firm-a model of knowledge development and increasing foreign market commitments. Journal of international business studies, 23-32.

15-Kärkkäinen Aleksi,(2005), Selection of International Market Entry Mode, Seminar in Business Strategy and International Business, internet

16-Kazuyuki Motohashi (2015). Global Business Strategy: Multinational Corporations Venturing into Emerging Markets. Publisher: Springer Tokyo.

17-Khorshidi, G.H., Hajipour, B. Azizi, S. & Hanzal Eidani, H. (2016). Designing and explaining the pattern of export development in free trade zones of Iran, Global Management Conference, Accounting Economics and Humanities at the Beginning of the Third Millennium, Shiraz, Research Company Green Market Idea. (In Persian)

18-Liesch, P. W., & Knight, G. A. (1999). Information internalization and hurdle rates in small and medium enterprise internationalization. Journal of International Business Studies, 30(2), 383-394.

19-Malekakhlaghi,I.Nopastand, S.M., & Jamali, Kh. (2011). Identifying and Ranking Performance Indicators in Entry into Foreign Markets (Case Study: Iran Khodro),Journal of Research in New Marketing Research,Year1,No.2,78-61.(In Persian)

20-Masozera, M. K., Alavalapati, J. R. R., Jacobson, S. K. and Shrestha R. K. (2006). "Assessing the suitability of community-based management for the Nyungwe Forest Reserve, Rwanda". Forest Policy and Economics, 8(2), 206-216.

21-Ministry of Jihad-e-Agriculture (2016). Exports and imports of agricultural goods led by the end of August, Deputy Director of Planning and Economic Center of Information and Communication Technology. (In Persian)

22-Rezvani, H. R., & Alizadeh, F. G. (2011). Evaluation and analysis of strategies for entering food products into foreign markets, new marketing researches Volume 1, Issue 3, autumn, pp. 192-218. (In Persian)

23-Root, F. R. (1998). Entry strategies for international markets. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

24-Sadri, G., & Lees, B. (2001). Developing corporate culture as a competitive advantage. Journal of Management Development, 20(10), 853-859.

25-Sharma, V. M., & Erramilli, M. K. (2004). Resource-based explanation of entry mode choice. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 12(1), 1-18.

26-Somlev Ilian P., Yasuo Hoshino (2005) .Influence of location factors on establishment and ownership of foreign investments: The case of the Japanese manufacturing firms in Europe, International Business Review 14, PP. 577-598.

27-Tajeddin, M. (2009). Factors Affecting the Internationalization of Companies (SMEs). Work and Society, Social, Economic, Scientific, Cultural Monthly, No. 109, pp. 39-34. (In Persian)

28-Townsend, J. D., Yeniyurt, S., & Talay, M. B. (2009). Getting to global: An evolutionary perspective of brand expansion in international markets. Journal of International Business Studies, 40(4), 539-558.

29-United Nations (2011). Accessed 2012 at http://www. Unglobalcompact.org.

30-Welch, L. S., & Luostarinen, R. (1988). Internationalization: Evolution of a concept. The Internationalization of the firm, 14, 83-98.

31-Whitla, P., Walters, P. G., & Davies, H. (2007). Global strategies in the international hotel industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 26(4), 777-792.

32-Zekiri, Jusuf (2016). Motivating factors and the modes of entry in other markets, Ecoforum, Volume 5, and Special Issue, 9-18.

33-Zimmerman, A. and Blythe, J. (2013). Business to business marketing management:A global perspective, NewYork: Routledge: Taylor and Francis group.