سیاستگذاری کلان برای معماری محصول در صنعت خودروسازی ابزاری برای طراحی یکپارچه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش آموخته دکتری مهندسی صنایع، گروه خودروسازی سایپا، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار دانشکده مدیریت و اقتصاد، دانشگاه صنعتی شریف، تهران، ایران

3 استاد گروه مهندسی صنایع، دانشگاه صنعتی شریف، تهران، ایران

چکیده

صنعت خودروسازی و دو خودروساز بزرگ کشور یعنی سایپا و ایران­خودرو همیشه مورد توجه خاص دولت و مجلس بوده­اند. در این بین مدیریت تکنولوژی در سطح کلان بسیار موثر بوده و یکی از موضوعات مهم معماری محصول است. معماری محصول دارای نقش کلیدی در جذب و انتقال حداکثری تکنولوژی­ها و نیز میزان ساخت­پذیری واحدهای تکنولوژی محصول در شبکه زنجیره­تامین دارد. در این مقاله به نقش معماری محصول در طراحی و ساخت واحدهای تکنولوژی محصول در شبکه زنجیره­تامین پرداخته شده است. نوع پیکره­بندی محصول دارای تاثیر بسزایی در ایجاد همسویی و هماهنگی انواع تکنولوژی­های محصول در شبکه زنجیره­تامین دارد. در این پژوهش با استفاده از یک رویکرد کیفی، مدلی جهت یکپارچه نمودن انواع تصمیمات یک بنگاه مادر در حین طراحی واحدهای تکنولوژی محصول در شبکه زنجیره­تامین طراحی گردیده است. داده­های اولیه تحقیق با انجام مصاحبه­های عمیق اکتشافی با کارشناسان بنگاه­های خودروسازی و نیز تامین­کنندگان آنها جمع­آوری شده است. سپس داده­های جمع­آوری­شده از طریق تم­کاوی مورد تحلیل قرار گرفته و ضمن کشف ارتباطات بین آنها، یک مدل مفهومی طراحی شده است. اعتبار مدل طراحی­شده با استفاده از روش بررسی روایی محتوا تصدیق و در یک تجربه صنعتی صحه­گذاری شده است. این مقاله مدعی است که بینش جدیدی بر مهندسی یکپارچه گروه­های تکنولوژی هموسته در شبکه زنجیره­تامین ارائه می­نماید.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Macro Policy for Product Architecture in Automotive Industry a Means for Integrated Design

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad karimpour kalow 1
  • Mohammadreza Arasti 2
  • Mohammadreza Akbari Jokar 3
1 Ph.D. of Industrial Engineering, SAIPA Automotive Industry Group, Tehran, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Economic and Management, Sharif University and Technology, Tehran, Iran
3 Professor, Faculty of Industrial Engineering, Sharif University and Technology, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
Automotive industry of the Iran and two major automaker, SAIPA and IRAN-KHODRO groups, have been always the central attention of the State and the Parliament. Also technology management in the massive scale was so effective and it is one of the important subjects of product architecture. During the formation of the product architecture structure, decisions for manufacturing processes and supply chain architectures will be made simultaneously. In this paper, case study research methodology is used to develop a model for the decision integration of a car manufacturing corporate for developing product and process technologies in the range of its suppliers. Preliminary data are collected from sites that involve in Iran car manufacturing corporates and wide range of interviews with managers and experts in product development strategies and suppliers. Secondary data is collected from literature review and available documents in mentioned business unit. Results show that there is a strong relation between product architecture and product and process technology policy in supply network.
Introduction
Product architecture has a key role in maximizing technology absorption and transfer and it also improves the level of Manufacturability of product technology unites in supply chain network. Manufacturability of a product and its technologies in new product developing projects are due to the way of products function allocation to physical parts and also the type of industrial design. Product architecture in the literature of product development is allocation of defined tasks and functions of a product to physical components. Product architecture is a general description of product characteristics classifications covering product systems, number and type of components, number and type of common areas between these components and also the presenter of fundamental structure of a product. In this article, product technology is defined as an engineering diagram or a made physical sample of a system which represent various sciences’ usage in a product function. Process technologies are also consist of technologies which are used in a firm’s systems and machines and realized their functions. Also technologies of supply chain network define supplier potency in design and manufacture of different product and process systems. The result of product architecture is design and manufacture of systems and parts along whit embedded technologies which are offered in a format of a single product. Product architecture is created by industrial design in the format of a product.
Case study
Preliminary data are collected from sites that involve in Iran car manufacturing corporates and wide range of interviews with managers and experts in product and Technology development strategies and suppliers. Secondary data is collected from literature review and available documents in mentioned business unit.
Materials and Methods
In this article a qualitative approach is used in research methodology. To enhance the generalizability of the results, according to triangulation principle, this research was conducted in three stages and based on data from separate sources. While studying the history of the research and measuring experimental documentations of parent automobile firms, by means of deep and exploratory interviews with correspondents, the primary data was collected and the early version of model is designed by the method of theme analysis. The second stage of research is done after developing conceptual model in order to validate the model. The method of collecting and analyzing data in this stage had been content validity survey through correspondents. The third step of the research has been done in practice in order to subscribe the verified model.
Discussion and Results
Research findings indicate that today product architecture is used as a platform for designing and employing technologies in product components. Indeed designing a product is designing various technologies in order to realize its functions. In this research we define collaborative technology groups as a part of technologies which are embedded and appeared in systems, sub-systems, and different components of a product and its developing processes, which realize their various functions. In other words, product technology unites are the main focus of designers and engineers to define collaborative technology groups which are designed and manufactured in supply chain network of a firm to realize products and processes functions. Indeed, physical components of products and processes indicate a particular technology mechanism. For this reason we refer to these technologies as collaborative technology groups which act based on their functions in relation with each other and they are complementary. The product section of these technologies realize the function and the process section of the groups realize performance of firm’s production systems and supply chain. Technologies such as designing, molding, casting, and manufacturing are related to these technology units.
Manufacturability of technology units in supply chain network is an important part of designing and manufacturing a product. Measurement of a product Manufacturability is done according to supply chain network potential and actual sufficiency and capabilities in manufacturing modules and also firm potential and actual sufficiency and capability in integrating different components and modules for manufacturing a product. Different analysis levels of decisions and activities exist in different stages of technology groups designing in various products and processes. While general and massive architecture and design proceeding of all product technologies is done in the firm and by final product developing group, detailed proceeding related to systems and modules technology architecture and design in different categories of supply chain network such as manufacturers, producers, and other components of supply chain is done professionally. The importance of coordination and relation between these different stages redouble the importance of purposeful architecture and design of product and process technologies in supply chain.
Conclusion
Data analysis according to case study indicates that in order to design constructible technology groups for product, process and supply chain systems, designing of these systems and technologies should be integrated. Data analysis and collection indicate that product architecture has a significant role in partnership rate and technology transfer in the level of supply chain. If we depend on suppliers in a number of important technologies, in the processes of modeling, designing, and manufacturing of technologies and affording their parts, we should involve the suppliers in technology developing projects and associate them in decision making. Also during choosing the type of product architecture, we should consider the important components of product strategy, firm’s strategy in affording existing parts, new parts, and also manufacturing, producing, and assembling equipment. Through product architecture, the product and process technologies in supply chain are connected and shaped collaborative technology groups. The designed model in this research is recommended as a general platform for designing and producing integrated and constructible product technology unites in supply chain network of a Corporation. This article claims that it presents a new insight to integrated and constructible engineering of collaborative technology groups in supply chain network.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • New Product Development
  • Product Architecture
  • Platform
  • Product Technology Units
  • Integration
1-Baldwin, C.Y. & Kim, B.C. (2000). Design Rules: the power of modularity, The MIT Press.

2-Caputo, M. & Zirpoli, F. (2002). Supplier involvement in automotive component design: outsourcing strategies and supply chain management, International Journal of Technology Management, Vol. 23 (1–3): 129–154.

3-Creswell, J.W. (2009). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative and Mixed Methods Approach, 3rd, Thousand Oak, CA: Sage.

4-Cunha, F. & Heckman, J.J. (2007). The Technology of Skill Formation, IZA Discussion.

5-ElHadj, K., Agard, R.B. & Penz, B. (2009). An Optimization Method for the Simultaneous Design of a Product Family and its Related Supply Chain Using a Taboo Search Algorithm, Cirrelt, Vol. 35.

6-Fine, C. (1998). Clockspeed: Winning Industry Control in the Age of Temporary Advantage, Perseus Books, New York.

7-Fisher, Ramadas & Ulrich. (1999). Component Sharing in the Management of Product Variety: A Study of Automotive Braking System, Management Science, Vol. 45, No. 3: 297-315.

8-Fixson, S.K. (2005). Product architecture assessment: a tool to link product, process and supply chain decision, Journal of Operation Management, Vol. 23(1): 345-369.

9-Gordon, S. (2008). The Case for Case-Based Research, Journal of Information Technology Case and Application Research, Vol. 10 (1), PP. 1-10.

10-Huang, C. & Kusiak, A. (1998). Modularity in design of products and systems, IEEE Transaction on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, Vol. 28:66-77.

11-Lamothe, J., Hadj-Hamou, K. & Aldanond, M. (2006). An optimization model for selecting a product family and designing its supply chain, European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 169, No. 3: 1030–1047.

12-Maropoulos, P.G., Bramal, D.G. & Mckay, K.R. (2003). Assessing the manufacturability of early Product designs using aggregate process models, Engineering Manufacture, Vol 217. 

13-Nepal, B., Monplaisirb, L. & Famuyiwa, O. (2011). A multi-objective supply chain configuration model for new products, International Journal of Production Research, Vol. 49, No. 23.

14-Pahl & Beitz. (1988). Engineering Design - A Systematic Approach, London: Springer-Verlag.

15-Parente, R., Alvaro, C., Nicole, S. & Flavio, V. (2013). Lessons Learned from Brazilian, Business Horizons.

16-Pero, M., Abdelkafi, N., Sianesi, A., Blecker & Thorsten. (2010). A Framework for the Alignment of New Product Development and Supply Chains, Supply Chain Management, Vol. 15, No. 2.

17-Ragatez, L., Handfield, B. & Petersen, J. (2002). Benefits associated with supplier integration into new product development under conditions of technology uncertainty, Journal of Business Research, Vol. 55: 389-400.

18-Salvador, F. & Forza, C. (2002). Modularity, Product Variety, Production Volume, and Component Sourcing, Journal of Operation Management, Vol. 20: 549-575.

19-Sanchez, R. & Mahoney, J. (1996). Modularity, flexibility and knowledge management in product and organization design, Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 17: 63-76.

20-Swink & Morgan. (1999). Threats to New Product Manufacturability and the Effects of Development Team Integration Processes, Journal of Operations Management, No. 17: 691-709.

21-Tatikonda, M. & Gregory, S. (2003). Product technology transfer in the upstream supply chain, The Journal of Product Innovation Management, Vol. 20: 444-467.

22-Ulrich, K.T. & Eppinger, S.D. (2012). Product Design and Development, 5 ed., MC Graw-Hill International (UK) Ltd.

23-Ulrich, K. & Tung, K. (1991). Fundamentals of Product Modularity, in Proceedings of the 1991 ASME Design, Miami, Florida.

24-Ulrich, K. (1995). The role of product architecture in the manufacturing firm, Research Policy, Vol. 24, No. 3: 419–440.

25-Wheelwright, S.C. & Clark, K.B. (1992). Creating Plans to Focus Product Development, Harvard Business Review: 70-82.

26-Whitney, D.E. (2004). Mechanical Assemblies: Their Design, Manufacture, and Role in Product Development, Oxford University Press.

27-Worren, N., Moore, K. & Cardona, P. (2002). Modularity, strategic flexibility, and firm performance, a study of the home appliance industry, Vol. 23, No. 12.