بررسی نقش نوآوری استراتژیک و نوآوری باز بر عملکرد شرکت های فعال در منطقه ویژه اقتصادی بوشهر

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار گروه مدیریت، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

2 کارشناس ارشد مدیریت دولتی گرایش تحول، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

3 کارشناس ارشد مدیریت دولتی گرایش منابع انسانی، دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

4 کارشناس ارشد مدیریت صنعتی، دانشگاه خلیج فارس بوشهر

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر شرکت­های تولیدی و خدماتی را به عنوان یکی از مهم ترین انواع شرکت­ها از نظر فعالیت مورد مطالعه قرارداده است، و به نقش نوآوری استراتژیک و نوآوری باز بر عملکرد شرکت­های فعال در منطقه ویژه اقتصادی بوشهر پرداخته است. برای جمع آوری اطلاعات از پرسشنامه­های نوآوری باز رانگوس(2014)، نوآوری استراتژیک جعفری(2013) و عملکرد شرکت محقق ساخته استفاده شده است. جامعه آماری تحقیق را مدیران و کارکنان 30 شرکت تولیدی و خدماتی فعال در منطقه ویژه اقتصادی بوشهر تشکیل می‏دهند. روش نمونه‏گیری در این تحقیق از نوع احتمالی و تصادفی ساده می‏باشد. برای تعیین حجم نمونه از جدول مورگان استفاده شده است؛ به این صورت که برای جامعه 440 نفری کارکنان شرکت­های فعال در منطقه ویژه اقتصادی بوشهر، تعداد نمونه 205 نفر می­باشد که تعداد 202 پرسشنامه جمع­آوری شد. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده‏ها از روش آزمون تحلیل مسیر و آزمون تی استفاده شد. یافته‏های تحقیق نشان داد که نوآوری استراتژیک و نوآوری باز تأثیر معناداری بر عملکرد شرکت ها دارند. در میان ابعاد نوآوری استراتژیک و نوآوری باز، سه بعد نوآوری ارزشی، نوآوری ورود به بازار و اشتراک دانش و تکنولوژی جدید بر عملکرد شرکت­های فعال در منطقه ویژه اقتصادی بوشهر تأثیر مثبت و معناداری داشتند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of Strategic Innovation and Open Innovation on the Performance of Companies Operating in the Zone Special Economic Bushehr

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Ghasemi 1
  • Elham Beygi rad 2
  • Ali Margir 3
  • Mohsen Shykhyany 4
1 Associate Professor, Faculty of Management, University of Sistan and Baluchestan
2 Master of Public Administration, Faculty of Management, University of Sistan and Baluchestan
3 Master of Public Administration, Faculty of Management, University of Sistan and Baluchestan
4 Master of Science in Industrial Management, Gulf University of Bushehr
چکیده [English]

Abstract
This study manufacturing and service companies as one of the most important types of firms the activity is studied and the role of strategic innovation and open innovation on the performance of firms operating  in the zone special economic bushehr. To collect  information from questionnaire open innovation Rangus (2014), strategic innovation of jafari (2013) and has been  the company's performance as developed . The population of the study consisted of 30 manufacturing and Service Company operating in the zone  special  economic bushehr. The sampling in this research possible and random . Morgan table was  used  to determine the sample  size. this means that the community had 440 active employees at the zone  special economic bushehr.  205 of which 202 samples were collected. And for data analysis used path analysis and was used of test Tvalue. The results  showed that  strategic innovation and open innovation have a significant impact on corporate performance.Among the strategic innovation  and open innovation dimensions, three dimensions of value innovation , innovation market  market entry and sharing of knowledge and  new technologies on the performance of companies operating in the zone special economic bushehr  had  appositive and significant effect.
Introduction
Innovation The process of getting ideas through customers is satisfactory. Also, turning knowledge into new products and services is also an innovation. One of the results of innovation is value creation and productivity, and thus the growth of commerce. Strategic innovation is the concept of existing industry competition in a completely different way that redefines and upgrades customer values. Contrary to traditional innovation, this different method of competition does not just include product innovation. Such innovation may be related to the concept of product, production or marketing of related products and products (Speed ​​Ashtiani, 2008: 143). Innovators can improve the outcomes of the company and assume that companies, in addition to internal organization ideas, also benefit from ideas outside the organization, and the boundaries between companies and environments Its permeability is permeable (Atuahene-Gima, 2005). It also encourages the effective use of less-used resources and thus improves performance (Chesbrough, 2006). The confrontation with the tidal wave of global-social, technological, and economic change is one of the reasons that, in a rapidly changing, progressive and globalized economy, can not be solved only through a kind of innovation, for example, technological innovation, Here, we need some kind of innovation that, by employing appropriate forms of innovation, will help organizations or business firms adapt themselves to the changing business environment as quickly as possible (Hejazi & Diasalar, 2011). The power of innovation is the most important determinant of performance. Companies with high capacity of innovation can achieve high performance by adapting the environment and developing new capabilities (Motaifi et al., 2010: 61). Production and service companies play an important role in the development of a community. Improvement in the quality and innovation of production will stimulate the growth of these companies (Sanchez, 1995). An organization that does not have creativity and innovation can not survive and disappear over time. Hence, organizations are continuously looking for ways to strengthen creativity and innovation and remove barriers in the organization. In many industries, companies are under pressure to improve their innovation abilities (Mirfakhredini et al., 2015). For manufacturing and service organizations, there is nothing but more efficient and attractive to customers, because if manufacturing organizations or services have the necessary effectiveness in attracting customers, in addition to increasing customer satisfaction (people), they reduce costs. Organizational and, in fact, increasing organizational efficiency. Given the widespread and diverse needs of people in the service sector, innovation in such organizations is urgent and necessary. Innovations in companies leave the repetition cycle and drown in the daily routine (Tide & Bustent, 2012:7). Strategic innovation and open innovation approaches can create a change in the performance of companies and address the weaknesses and bottlenecks of traditional approaches. The combination of these two variables is associated with the underlying function of companies that use firms to achieve high performance and compete with competitors and survive innovation, to look at innovation as an indispensable strategy, along with the changing environmental changes Organizations that are influential in identifying innovations and responding to these changes are the most appropriate. In the present research, we seek to answer the question that strategic innovation and open innovation have an impact on the performance of companies active in the special economic zone of Bushehr.
Case study
This study manufacturing and service companies as one of the most important types of firms the activity is studied and the role of strategic innovation and open innovation on the performance of firms operating  in the zone special economic bushehr.
Materials and Methods
The present paper is based on the purpose of the application. The research method is descriptive correlational and data gathering method is a survey method. The purpose of the research is to investigate the role of strategic innovation and open innovation on the performance of companies using the Balanced Scorecard method. The statistical population of the study consists of managers and experts of 30 manufacturing companies and services in the special economic zone of Bushehr. The total number of these people is 440 people. Sampling in this research is a simple random probability that is selected among the employees of the companies active in the special economic zone of Bushehr. Morgan table is used to determine the sample size. So, for the 440 community of employees of the company active in the special economic zone of Bushehr, referring to the Morgan table, the sample number is 205 people.
 Discussion and Results
The dramatic increase in global competition, along with a change in knowledge-based economy, creates a renewed emphasis on innovation. Rapid changes in the competitive environment create a new world of competition. This new economy is driven faster by other innovators by those who are innovative (creative, creating knowledge, or transforming it into new products and services). Innovation is at the head of everything supported by entrepreneurial action and aims to create value through the use of knowledge. Therefore, the superior value for the customer is transferred through innovation in organizations. Therefore, attention to innovative and strategic improvement of the performance of the companies.
Conclusion
Innovating market entry makes strategic innovators distract from the previous approach they serve their customers. For example, the advent of the Internet created a lot of opportunities for customers who used non-traditional methods. Therefore, market entry innovation is not limited to the use of new technologies for market access, but could include any new approach to marketing a company's products or services that are different from those of other competitors. Future researchers can examine the relationship between types of innovation with sustainable competitive advantage, different dimensions of business performance, or enterprise entrepreneurship in organizations or companies.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Open innovation
  • Strategic Innovation
  • corporate performance
  • Bushehr
1- Ashtiani, N (2008). Strategic Innovation, Journal of Management and Human Resources in Oil Industry, Second Year, No. 2, pp. 169-143.(In Persian).

2- Atuahene-Gima, K., Slater, S & Olson, E (2005).; "The  contingent Value of Responsive and Proactive Market Orientations for New Product Program Performance", Journal of product innovation management, Vol. 22, Issue 6, p.p. 646-482

3- Bagherinejad, J & Javid, Gh (2014). Introducing an Innovative Model in the Banking Industry of Iran, Two Issues of Innovation and Value Creation, No. 5, pp. 42-21.(In Persian).

 4- Barati, E; Broad, H & Opi, A (2009). Simple and Multiple Relationships of Organizational Justice with Job Performance in Isfahan Steel Co., Management Perspective, No. 33, 28-9.(In Persian).

5-Chesbrough, H (2003). Open Innovation: The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Technology. Harvard Business Press

Chesbrough, H.W (2006); Open innovation: The new imperative for creating and profiting from technology, Harvard Business Press

6- Cui, Tingru, Y., Hua, T., Hock Haiand Lid, J (2015). Information technology and open innovation: A strategic alignment perspective, Information & Management, Volume 52, Issue 3, Pages 348–358

7- Keshavarz, L; Farahani, and Zanmandi, H. (2015). Landscape Designs and Strategic Plan for the Development of Gymnastics of Iran with Balanced Scorecard Approach, Organizational Behavioral Organizational Management Studies in Sport, Vol. 2, No. 7, pp. 115-103.(In Persian).

8- Feasibility, d., Rooh Alamini, AS (2013). Analysis of the Effect of Strategic Thinking on Strategic Innovation in Small and Medium Enterprises (Case Study: Khezra Industrial Park of Kerman), Journal of Industry and Universities, Sixth Year, No. 21 & 22, 49-37.(In Persian).

9- Feizi, K, Tabaeeyan, K & Khosropur, H (2013). The Role of Innovation Approach on Intelligent Technology, Technology Growth, Quarterly Journal of Parks and Growth Centers, Year 9, No. 35, 32-23.(In Persian).

10- Fetterhoff, T. J. &  Voelkel, D(2006). Managing open innovation in biotechnology. Research-Technology Management, 49(3): 14-18

11- Frfrfrqddnni, H; Dordrani, M. & Karimi Tekloo, S. (2015) Designing a Conceptual Model for the Development of Open Innovation in Science and Technology Parks Using Factor Analysis, Public Management Research, Eighth, No. 24, 98-71.(In Persian)

12- Gassmann,, O(2006). Opening up the innovation process: towards an agenda. R&D Management 36 (3), 223–228

13- Gebauer, H. ,Worch, H & Truffer, B (2012). Absorptive capacity, learning processes and combinative capabilities as determinants of strategic innovation, European Management Journal, 30, 57– 73

14- Ghavami Pour, M & Irandust, AS (2013). The role of inter-company relationships in corporate learning and open innovation in small and medium enterprises, entrepreneurship development, Volume 6, No. 1, 46-27.(In Persian).

15- Haji Hosseini, H. & Noorzad Moghaddam, A. (2014). The Effect of Market-Oriented Innovation on Business Performance and the Sustainable Competitive Advantage in Industrial Enterprises, Journal of Industrial Development Development, No. 23, pp. 29-21(In Persian).

16- Hejazi, R & Diosalar, S (2011). Application of Open Innovation Paradigm to Improve Competitive Power of Knowledge Bonyan Companies, 4th National Conference on Engineering and Innovation Management of Iran.(In Persian).

17- Hung, K.P & Chou, C(2013). “The impact of open innovation on firm performance: The moderating effects of internal R&D and environmental turbulence”, Technovation, Vol. 33, Issue 10, p.p. 368-380

18- Inside, M (2013). Presentation of Open Innovation Model in Iranian Electricity Industry, Master's Thesis, University of Tehran, Faculty of Economic Sciences.(In Persian).

19- Jacobides, M. G. & Billinger(2006). Designing the boundaries of the firm: From ‖make, buy, or ally‖ to the dynamic benefits of vertical architecture. organization Science, 17(2): 249-261

20-Mazlomi, N; Zamani, M; Sidnakvi, M & Rabbani, A (2014). Organizational learning relationship, continuous improvement and inter-organizational trust with organizational performance, Insurance research journal, Year 29, Issue 2, 182-163.(In Persian).

21- Meshbaki, E; Bhadh, E, & T, S (2012). Promoting Organizational Performance through Objective Organizational Forgetting, Health Management, 15, 105-93.(In Persian).

22- Mirfakhredini, H., Hatami Nasab, H., Taleiifar, R. & Konjakav Monfard, A. (2010)Knowledge Management, Knowledge Innovation and Innovation Performance in Small and Medium Enterprises, Business Management Perspective, No. 2, Successive 35, pp103-118.(In Persian)

23- Naimati, Z, Shashi& Peasant, H (2015). Income on the Factors Affecting the Strategic Planning Success in the View of Open Innovation in Consulting Services Companies, Quarterly Journal of Innovation and Creativity in the Humanities, Vol. 5, No. 3, pp. 82-59.(In Persian)

24- Nargesi, A., Davari, A. & Afrasiabi, R. (2014), Investigating the Effect of Internal and External Factors on Open Innovation (Case Study: Research Centers of the Ministry of Industry and Science), Quarterly of Technology Development Management, Volume 2, Number 1, 48-30.(In Persian)

25- Nasri Nasrabadi, Sh., Fallah, A& Shirani, LPri, S. (2014). Investigating the Effect of Knowledge Network on the Performance of Product Innovation Using the Structural Equation Model (Case Study: Electronic Commerce Companies of Isfahan Province), Journal of Innovation Management Research , Third Year, No. 3, pp. 75-53.(In Persian)

26- Nick Raftar, Talebi, T. K, & Saeedi Arani, F (2015). The Relationship between Organizational Innovation and Performance with the Mediating Variable of Marketing Innovation (Case Study: Small and Medium Businesses in the Textile Industry of Kashan), Commercial Management, Volume 7, Number 2, pp. 500-485.(In Persian)

27- Pakdel, M., Nayebzadeh, Sh., & Dehghan Dehnavi, H. (2011). Evaluation of the impact of market orientation, innovation and loyalty on business performance (Case study: Garment Group), Marketing Management Magazine, No. 10, p. 26 -1.(In Persian).

28- Rahimi, R & Darvishi, M. (2015). New Marketing Research Papers, Year 5, Number 4, Issue 19, pp. 162-139.(In Persian).

29- Rogo, F., Cricellib, L &  Grimaldib, M (2014). Assessing the performance of open innovation practices: A case study of a community of innovation, Technology in Society, Volume 38, Pages 60–80

30- Saebia, T & Fossa, N (2015). Business models for open innovation: Matching heterogeneous open innovation strategies with business model dimensions, European Management Journal, Volume 33, Issue 3, Pages 201–213

31- Safdari, M; Logical, M, & Tavakkoli, Gh (2014). An Innovative Openness; A Comprehensive View on Concepts, Approaches, Trends and Key Success Factors, Technology Development Quarterly, Year 10, Issue 40, 18-10.(In Persian).

32- Sanchez, R (1995).“Strategic flexibility in product competition”, Strategic management journal, Vol. 16, Issue S1, p.p. 135-159

33- Sisodiya, S., Johnson, J &. Grégoire, Y(2013). “Inbound open innovation for enhanced performance: Enablers and opportunities”, Industrial Marketing Management, Vol. 42, Issue 5, p.p. 836-849

34- Tafafi, A., Tajdini, K., Aghajani, H. & Tajdini, K. (2010). The Attitude of Learning to Innovation and Organizational Performance, The Perspective of Business Management, No. 4, Successive 37, pp. 71-57.(In Persian).

35- Teide, J. & Bessent, JR (2012), Innovation Management: Integrating Technological Changes, Market and Organization, First Printing, Mohammad Reza Arasti, Tehran, Rasa Publication.(In Persian).

36-- The task of friend, H. Foroughnejad, H. & Khoshnood, M. (2014). The Effect of Strategic Knowledge Management on Innovation and Functioning of Tehran Stock Exchange Brokerage Companies, Journal of Accounting and Auditing Management, Third Year, No. 11, pp. 173-161.(In Persian).

37- Young Immigration, H & Sakahi, F (2009). Investigating the Relationship between Individual Skills, Organizational Learning, Innovation, and Organizational Performance in Small and Medium Industries of Markazi Province, Viewpoint, Year 16, No 44, 96-81.(In Persian)