حکمرانی خوب و ارتقای سلامت نظام اداری؛ تبیین نقش دولت الکترونیک

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار دانشگاه دریانوردی و علوم دریایی چابهار

چکیده

هدف از تحقیق حاضر، بررسی نقش ایجاد و استقرار دولت الکترونیک در ارتقای شاخص­های حکمرانی خوب در ایران است. جامعه آماری تحقیق متشکل از خبرگان موضوعات دولت الکترونیک و حکمرانی خوب می­باشد. باتوجه به نرمال بودن توزیع متغیرها، براساس آزمون­ پارامتریک تی-استیودنت انجام­شده، یافته­های تحقیق بدین قرار است: ایجاد و استقرار دولت الکترونیک در کشور از پنج بعد؛ شفافیت، پاسخگویی، مشارکت، اعتماد و نظارت­پذیری، کارآمدی دولت و دسترسی به خدمات دولتی باعث ارتقاء شاخص­های حکمرانی خوب در کشور خواهدشد. همچنین نتایج آزمون فرضیه­های فرعی تحقیق نشان می­دهد که؛ ایجاد و استقرار دولت الکترونیک در ایران از بعد تسهیل و کمک به اجرای بهتر قوانین و مقررات، از بعد شفاف­سازی از طریق مراحل انجام کار، افزایش اطلاع­رسانی، جریان آزاد اطلاعات و نظارت­­پذیری، از بعد شفاف­سازی معاملات، از بعد شفاف­سازی در امور اداری و استخدامی، از بعد شفاف­سازی از طریق اتوماسیون اداری و سیستم مکانیزه اطلاعات منجر به ارتقاء شاخص­های حکمرانی خوب می­شوند. یافته­ها همچنین حکایت از این دارند که؛ ایجاد و استقرار دولت الکترونیک در ایران از بعد پاسخگوبودن به مراجعه­کنندگان و رعایت حقوق ارباب­رجوع، از بعد بهبود و تسریع در پاسخگویی به رسانه­ها و افکار عمومی، ازبعد پاسخگویی به دستگاه­ها و واحدهای نظارتی موجبات ارتقاء حکمرانی خوب در کشور را فراهم می­آورند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Good Governance and Health Promoting of Administrative System; Explaining the Role of Electronic Government

نویسنده [English]

  • Esmail Yaghoubi
Assistant Professor , Chabahar Maritime University, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract
The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of establishing and deploying e-government in promoting good governance indicators in Iran. The statistical population of the research is composed of experts in e-government and good governance. Regarding the normal distribution of variables, based on the T-Student's parametric test, the research findings are as follow: Establishing and deploying e-government in the country from five aspects: transparency, accountability, partnership, trust and monitoring, government efficiency and access to Government services will promote good governance indicators in the country.
Also, the results of testing the hypotheses of the research show that establishment and deploying e-government in Iran will result in improved good governance indicators as the following aspects: from the aspect of facilitating and helping the better fulfillment of  laws and regulations, from the aspect of transparency through the process of doing work, increasing information, free flow of information and monitoring transparency of transactions, from the aspect of transparency in administrative and employment affairs, and from the aspect of transparency through automation and information-mechanized systems. The findings also suggest that the establishment and deployment of e-government in Iran from the aspects of responding to clients and observing their rights, and improving and expediting responses to media and public opinion, and also responding to relevant organizations and monitoring units will lead to good governance in the country.
Introduction
Given the changing demands of the people to receive better and faster services, as well as the increasing expectations of the people about the accountability of the government, governments have been struggling to meet these needs and satisfy the citizens (Danayifard, 2003). In this way, IT provides a wide range of facilities to increase the quality, quantity and speed of providing services and information to governments, and provides a good governance groundwork as an efficient tool (Jasbi & Nafari, 2009).
Information technology can be one of the important solutions for reducing corruption and increasing the transparency of government activities. The rapid growth of information technology constitutes an obstacle to administrative law violators and lobbyists of the Non-transparent environment. Information technology also suggests a fundamental change and more transparency and timely, clear and accurate information for the survival and maintenance of public administration. Considering the importance of e-government and the benefits of its deployment and the beneficial and effective experiences of advanced governments in the area of ​​e-government deployment and the positive effects of using e-government in promoting good governance indicators in these countries, the scholar seeks to answer the question whether deployment and the use of e-government in Iran will lead to the promotion of good governance from the health aspect of administrative system?
Methodology
In general, the present study is based on the result, applied; on the basis of purpose, explanatory-descriptive and based on the type of data, quantitative. The research data has been collected through the field method. In terms of the time horizon, this research is sectional, because the data are collected over a specific time interval. The present research strategy is a quantitative survey. Regarding the purpose of the study, the statistical population of this study are the experts whose field of expertise is e-government and good governance with an emphasis on the health of the administrative system. The most appropriate people to be selected as respondents in this research are faculty members of universities and research institutes, experts and practitioners in the area of ​​the study variables. In this research, non-probabilistic (purposeful and judgmental) sampling method was used to determine the number of analytical units. The sample size is calculated according to the Cochran formula for an unlimited population.
In this research, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to determine the reliability of the questionnaire. According to the data, all the variables of the research have an acceptable reliability coefficient. It should be noted that for determining the validity of the construct, factor analysis method has been used with LISREL software. The results of the validation test of the research structures showed that all the standard estimates were more than 0.3 and the significant numbers were more than 1.96. On the other hand, the model's indicators are within the range. Therefore, it can be claimed that the questions of the variables of the research have a good validity.
To test the research hypotheses, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to measure the normal variables. The results of the research hypotheses test validate the eight hypotheses studied in the research. In the following, we will discuss the results of the research and present some suggestions in line with the results of the research.
Discussion and Conclusion
The research findings show that the establishment and deployment of e-government in Iran from the aspect of
transparency will promote good governance by facilitating and helping to better fulfillment of laws and regulations, through the process of doing work, increasing information flow, free flow of information and monitoring, transparency in transactions, transparency of administrative and employment affairs, and transparency through automation. The results also indicate that the establishment and deployment of e-government in Iran from the aspect of accountability to the issue will promote good governance by responding to the clients and observing their rights, and improving and expediting responses to media and public opinion, as well as responding to relevant organizations and monitoring units. On the other hand, the establishment and deployment of e-government in Iran in terms of participation, trust and monitoring, and the efficiency of the government and access to government services will also promote good governance.
According to the confirmation of the first hypothesis, one of the factors that prevents the system from potential injustice and corruption in system, as well as the unplanned principles of net efficiency and saving in management and management processes, is transparency. The transparency of affairs in governance and management is one of the most important policies; because mostly, where the affairs are hidden from the people and the officials, corruption and wrongdoing can still be seen and grow and remain.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • E-government
  • Good governance
  • Administrative health

1-Armstrong, E. (2005). Integrity, transparency and accountability in public administration: Recent trends, regional and international developments and emerging issues. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs.

2-Burn, J, & Robins, G.(2008), Moving Toward E-Governmen: A Case of Organizational Manegment. Logistics information managememen. Vol.62 .pp .82-103.

3-Danayifard, Hassan.  (2003), public theory in public administration; preconditions for the formulation of popular theory, Quarterly Journal of Management Studies, Issue 37, and 38. (In Persian)

4-Dolati, Ali, Darvishi, Farzad, Lotfi, Ezat ‌  Allah (2011) , Good Governance and Control of Corruption in Iran and Other Countries, Ilam Police Knowledge Quarterly, Second Year, No. 7. (In Persian)

5-Evans, D. & Yen, D. C.  (2005). “E-government: An analysis for implementation: Framework for understanding cultural and social impact”, Government Information Quarterly.

6-Fletcher, P. (2002).The Government Paperwork Elimination Act. Berlin: INT'L.J Of Public Admin., pp. 162-175.

7-Holden, s.(2006),Electroniec Government at the Local and Public Subsystem. public Performance and Management Review, Vol.21 .pp.54-81

8-Jasbi Javad; Nafari, Neda (2009) , Designing a Good Governance Model Based on the Theory of the System ‌  Open, Journal of Management Management of Iran, Year 4, Issue 16. (In Persian)

9-Landman. T. (2003). “Map Making and Analysis of the Main International Initiatives on Developing Indicators on Democracy and Good Governance”, University of Essex: Human Rights Center.

10-Lu, Y., Zhou, T. & Wang, B. (2009). “Exploring chinese users’ acceptance of instant messaging using the theory of planned behavior, the technology acceptance model, and the flow theory”, Computers in Human Behavior, 25 (1), pp. 29-39.

11-Maideri, Ahmad; Khairkhahan, Ja'far (2004) , the ruler  Good  Based  Development ,  note book  review ‌  S  economic  Center  Research ‌  Of the Islamic Consultative Assembly . (In Persian)

12-Malmir, Amena, Shirvani, Alireza, Rashidpour, Ali, Soltani, Iraj (2014) , Managing Relationship with the Citizen and Desired Governor, Development Quarterly, Year 9, No. 34. (In Persian)

13-Memarzadeh, Gholamreza, Jassabi, Jawad, Tafri, Neda (2010) , Governance  Good:  Ecology  Balanced, Journal of Research ‌  Management, No. 83. (In Persian)

14-Moghimi, Seyyed Mohammad, Ardakani, Mostafa, (2011) , Indicator Measurement ‌  Good governance and the role of e-government in promoting it, Journal of Information Technology Management, Volume 3, Number 8. (In Persian)

15-Nour, M., AbdelRahman, A., FadlAllah, A. (2008). “A Context Based Integrative Framework for eGovernment Initiatives”, Government Information Quarterly (25), pp. 448- 461.

16-Rafiei, Hadi, Shahanoushi, Naser (2014) , The Effect of Good Government and Good Governance on Human Development by Using Geographical Regression, Quarterly Journal of Research ‌  Economics of Iran, November 19, No. 58. (In Persian)

17-Sadegh, Nastaran; Sajjadi, Sayed Abdollah; Aghili, Seyed Vahed (2013) , Role  Establishment  Government  Electronic  On  The effectiveness of the company ‌  S  Insurance ( case  Study  Company  Joint stock  insurance  Iran  )  Quarterly  Studies  management  Urban, Year 5, No. 16. (In Persian)

18-Saghafi, Fatima.  Ali Ahmadi, Alireza.  , Rahimian, Hamid. Kari Dolatabadi, Akbar.  (2010).  The design of a conceptual model of people's participation and justice in the context of e-government based on the methodology of value thinking ,  Tomorrow management,  the period  9 , No.  23, Pages 3-16. (In Persian)

19-Samani, Amir; Nedaei, Asadollah; Khodadad Hoseini, Seyyed Hamid; Mousavi, Masoud (2015) , Measurement of Good City Governance for World Cities, Research ‌  Management in Iran, Volume 19, Issue 1. (In Persian)

20-Santiso, Carlos. (2002). “Governance Conditionality and the Reform of Multilateral Development Finance: The Role of the Group of Eight”, G8 Governance Number 7

21-Shah, A. (2006). "Corruption and decentralized public governance", Policy research working paper series, 3824. Washington DC: World Bank.

22-Sharifi, Hossein; Javadi, Mohammad Hossein; Haji ‌  Pour, Marzieh (2013) , Investigating the Role of Information Technology in Reducing Corruption through Increasing Information Transparency, Improving Responsiveness and Promoting Trust and Trust, Iranian Journal of Information Science and Technology, Period Twenty-Eight, Fluid . (In Persian)

23-Sinha, D. (2006). “Information Society as if Communication Mattered: The Indian State Revisited” in Bernard Bel, Jan Brouwer, Biswajit Das, Vibodh Parthasarathi and Guy Poitevin (eds.) Media and Mediation, New Delhi: Sage Publications.

24-Torres, J., Dominguez S, Cerda MF. Obal G, Mederos A., Irvine RF., Diaz A & Kremer C. (2005). “Solution behaviour of myo-inositol hexakisphosphate in the presence of multivalent cations”. Prediction of a neutral pentamagnesium species under cytosolic/nuclear conditions. J Inorg Biochem 99.

25-UNDP. Promoting ICT for Human Development in Asia Realizingthe Millennium Development     Goals. Regional Human DevelopmentReport; 2005.

26-United Nations Development Program (2002), Human Development Report, New York: Oxford University Press.

27-Valdés, G., Solar, M., Astudillo, H., Iribarren, M., Concha, G. & Visconti, M. (2011). Conception, development and implementation of an e-government maturity model in public agencies, Government Information Quarterly. 28(2), 176-187.

28-Williams. Bob. (2008). Intelligent Transport Systems Standards, Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalog record for this book is available from the U.S. Library of Congress, ISBN-13: 978-1-59693-291-3.

29-World Bank. (2003). "A Definition of E ـ government, Available at: http://www.worldbank.orpublicsector/egov/definition.htm. 

30-Yaghubi, Noor Mohammad (2009), Government Electronic:  Approach Management, Second Edition, Tehran:  Publishing Thoughts. (In Persian)