عنوان مقاله [English]
In general, sustainable progress is a landscape that simultaneously aims for social, economic, and environmental subjects, in the process of progress. In this course, production management and manufacturers are involved in sustainability more than ever. This study intended to identify different aspects of sustainable production with an ecological view from the stand point of managers of successful industrial manufacturing companies in Semnan, Iran. To this end, managers of 33 companies with at least five years of continuous work experience were interviewed, according to the stages of Repertory Grid Technique. Then, 33 single personal repertory grids and 174 primary personal constructs were generated. Finally, these constructs were explored and analyzed, and an aggregate grid of sustainable production was determined, containing 87 secondary constructs in different fields. These factors were also analyzed and ranked with SPSS based on the Friedman test. The ten top factors determined by this study include: social welfare of customers, desirable financial performance, adherence to national and international rules, foresight, intangible investment and brand management, sustainable design, measurement and monitoring of emission density, organizational resource planning, proper use of land, quality of and satisfaction with products.
Sustainability is an important and growing need for human activities. Sustainable progress is a key goal to human improvement. Sustainable improvement results from social, economic, and environmental issues and, in general, the process of improvement. Sustainability is a topic in different fields including engineering, design, and production. Producers are now engaged with sustainability more than ever. In general, sustainable improvement is a challenge and complex understanding that involves factors such as technology and engineering, economy, environmental monitoring, public health and well-being, society they work and live in, social demands, government strategies and producers, and policies. In particular, creating sustainable production requires balance and integration between the economy and social, environmental and supportive policies. This article focuses on business sustainability. This is a descriptive-interpretive study based on the Personal Construct Theory. The goal of this article is to extract and draw the construct derived from the managers' opinions in order to reach a native understanding of sustainable production construct in manufacturing companies of Semnan Province, Iran. The main questions outlined here are as follows: What are the managers' personal construct of industrial manufacturing companies for the understanding the sustainable production? What is the extent of each construct importance?
Active industrial-manufacturing companies of Semnan Province, Iran with a minimum history of more than five years of continuous production and one or more top ranking in national and provincial assessments in different areas were selected.
Materials and Methods
Repertory grid was used as the applied technique of Personal Construct Theory to extract and analyze the managers' personal theories about the sustainable production constructs using interviews and repertory grid formation through three steps namely the selection of topic and steps, construct extraction, and the connection of construct elements.
Discussion and Results
According to 175 initial constructs, since some had similar nature, 87 secondary constructs were classified using the content analysis method by integrating similar constructs and analyzing the final content based on similarities in an inductive process around a more general construct and the degree of compatibility. Collective repertory grid was formed in the form of a matrix consisting of 87 secondary constructs, six elements, and ratings that resulted from 33 individual managers' grid. Then, the collective repertory grid was prioritized using the Friedman test.
Goods and service producers do not have to experience change. In other words, survival is not compulsory at all. Reviewing the history of long-lasting companies reflects the fact that they have continuously been trying to survive and adapt to their surroundings. The persistence and sustainability condition appears to be adapting to compulsory changes by applying optional gradual changes. The need for sustainable production processes is well recognized due to rapid changes in technology and business processes in today's competitive world. Therefore, in this study, 87 sustainable production constructs are determined and rated: observation of national and international laws, operation management, deployment of management systems, observation and modeling of values and ethics, risk management, membership in institutions and associations, acquisition of certificates and letter of commendation, futuristic approach, passive defense and crisis management, project management, anti-corruption and fraud structure, proper and managed water use, proper and managed use of raw materials, equipment efficiency measurement and management, moving towards the clean sources of energy, planning for proper land use, resource retrieval, bio-efficiency measuring and monitoring, Measuring and monitoring the density of gaseous emissions, measuring and monitoring the production efficiency, water pollution reduction management, air pollution measuring and monitoring, soil pollution measuring and monitoring, production effects on animal / plant life, management, separation and reduction of waste production, disturbance reduction caused by production, Staff health management (psychology and health), non-compulsory work, team structure and participation, staff safety management and seriousness, labor union structure, lack of discrimination, a specific course of work and occupational progression, recruitment of competent and expert human resources, employee satisfaction, proper and sufficient salary, the importance of staff education and training, elimination of staff housing, employee welfare, reduction of harmful factors in production environment, supply chain training, development and observation of principles, laws and ethics of commerce, the development of domestic suppliers, the diversity of suppliers, supplier assessment, downward and upward investment in supply chain, outsourcing, goods and product transportation, Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), product quality, product delivery and packaging, safe use of products, market assessment and marketing, product component differentiation, national and international product standards, labeling and information, sustainable design, life cycle analysis, product innovations, aesthetics of products, variety and customized production, desirable financial performance, cost management, sustainable productivity and sustainability, intangible investment and brand management, the use of advanced technology in production, knowledge management, quality engineering, research and development, ICT application, joint work with large companies, social welfare in society, customers' social welfare, regular tax payment, social capital, industrial heritage and material return to nature, technology localization, management and reduction of accidents leading to injury or death, exports, science production, cultural influence on environment, development and calculation of green tax, 6R measures, green accounting, purchase of waste and wastewater, sales of waste and wastewater, and stakeholders' interests and satisfaction. In addition to the extent of identified constructs compared to previous studies, the constructs related to the industrial development and progress, industrial ecology and coexistence, supply chain, organizational leadership, industrial heritage, and products are determined as vital and important elements in order to reach the sustainable production. A review of the theoretical literature also shows that the findings are consistent with the theories related to the sustainable production. The importance of these dimensions has been reflected in most theories and studies, showing the external compatibility, in addition to internal consistency and the comprehensiveness of constructs.
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