نقش رهبری تحول‌گرا در تسهیل فرایند پیاده‌سازی استراتژی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری سیاستگذاری بازرگانی دانشگاه تهران

2 دانشیار دانشکده مدیریت و حسابداری، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

چکیده

محققان عرصه‏ی استراتژی، مؤلفه‏ی رهبری را یکی از مهم‌ترین عوامل تأثیرگذار در جهت توفیق یا شکست برنامه‌های استراتژیک دانسته‌اند. با این حال، تعداد اندکی از پژوهش‌ها به واکاوی عمیق یک الگوی مشخص رهبری در اداره‏ی فرایند پیاده‌سازی استراتژی پرداخته‌اند. پژوهش پیمایشی و کاربردی حاضر با هدف بررسی عمیق مؤلفه‏ی رهبری، سبک رهبری تحول‌گرا را در تسهیل فرایند پیاده‌سازی استراتژی مورد مطالعه قرار داده است و نقش چهار متغیر قابلیت نوآوری، تعهد سازمانی، یادگیری سازمانی و انگیزش کارکنان را در رابطه میان سبک رهبری تحول‌گرا و پیاده‌سازی استراتژی ارزیابی کرده است. داده‌های موردنیاز به وسیله پرسش‌نامه از نمونه‌ای بالغ بر 250 نفر از مدیران ارشد شرکت‌های پیمانکاری تأسیسات و تجهیزات صنعتی گردآوری شده‌اند و تحلیل داده‌ها توسط مدل‌های رگرسیونی انجام شده است. یافته‌های پژوهش ضمن تأیید رابطه میان رهبری تحول‌گرا و پیاده‌سازی استراتژی، نشان می‌دهد ایجاد تعهد سازمانی و انگیزش کارکنان مهم‌ترین کارکرد رهبری تحول‌گرا در هنگام اجرای استراتژی است و این سبک از رهبری می‌تواند با به همراه آوردن نوآوری، یادگیری، تعهد و انگیزش، فضای سازمان را برای دستیابی به اهداف استراتژیک و تسهیل فرایند پیاده‌سازی استراتژی آماده سازد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Role of the Transformational Leadership in Facilitating of Strategy Implementation

نویسندگان [English]

  • Seyed Hosien Jalali 1
  • Nader Mazloomi 2
1 PhD Candidate, Faculty of Management, University of Tehran, Tehran
2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Management & Accounting, Allameh Tabatabai University, Tehran
چکیده [English]

Extended Abstract                                                                                             
Scholars of strategy refer to the leadership as one of the most important parameters in success or failure of strategic plans. However, there are just a few studies that so far have deeply investigated the role of the specific leadership style in the strategy implementation process. To fill this gap, the current empirical surveys the role of
, and evaluates four factors namely innovation capability, organizational commitment, organizational learning and employee motivation in this relationship. Data gathered from a sample of 250 senior level managers of the industrial equipment and utilities contractors and analysis were done by regression models. Findings acknowledged the relationship between transformational leadership and strategy implementation and showed that the most important functionality of transformational leadership in strategy implementation is in developing commitment and motivation; and this leadership style could prepare the organization for successful attainment of the strategic goals and facilitation of the strategy implementation with innovation, commitment, learning and motivation.
Introduction
From the last few years it has been witnessed that transformational leadership is very important aspect of leadership that is highly associated with organizational performance (Ahmed et.al, 2014). Effectiveness of transformational leadership measures the ability of leaders to provoke the followers towards the strategic goals and provide facilitation in the process of strategy implementation.
Early researches of transformational leadership were about the features of leaders and their relationship with followers (e.g. Carter et.al, 2014; Li, Mitchell & Boyle, 2016). Further researches needed to deeply investigate the relationship between different leadership styles such as transformational ones and organizational outcomes, such as strategy implementation (O'Reilly et.al, 2010). The literature of strategy implementation is also needed to researches which go beyond identification of implementation obstacles and provide clearer explanation of how to implement strategies more effectively. Such deep pathologies could help academics and practitioners to comprehensive understanding of a complex, obscure strategy implementation nature.
Case Study
This investigation has been conducted on a sample of senior level managers of industrial equipment and utilities contractor companies. The contracting industry was chosen for two important reasons. First, contractor companies have had a good record of strategic planning, and so, strategy implementation is meaningful for most of them. Second, numerous projects in different fields were defined in Iran during the last decade (e.g. Energy, Building, Power & Infrastructures). Contractor companies play a key role to do these projects on time and with a low cost, and so, theirs strategy implementation is a core parameters to get to these capabilities.
Materials and Methods
This study objective is in the context of applied science. The main goal of the current study is to provide an explanation about the role of transformational leadership and its outcomes on strategy implementation. Data for this empirical analysis was gathered through a questionnaire and the research instrument comprised of questions on transformational leadership (Bass et.al, 2003), strategy implementation (Mazloomi & Jalali, 2014), organizational learning (García-Morales, Jiménez-Barrionuevo & Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, 2012), organizational commitment (Walumbwa et.al, 2005), innovation capability (García-Morales, Jiménez-Barrionuevo & Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, 2012), and employee motivation (Ahmed et.al, 2014). Questionnaire validity and reliability was approved by nominal validity and Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Then, the required data were gathered from a sample of 250 senior level managers of industrial equipment and utilities contractor companies.
Discussion and Results
Results showed that all proposed hypothesis are statistically significant. By conducting correlation analysis, researchers found that all of independent variables have a positive and strong correlation with the dependent variable, namely strategy implementation. Then, the hypothesis and the interaction between variables were tested by conducting regression analysis in 7 distinctive models. Regression analysis showed that transformational leadership has a positive, direct relationship with strategy implementation. In addition, outcomes of transformational leadership including organizational commitment, organizational learning, innovation capability, and employee motivation have a positive relationship with strategy implementation and also directly influence the relationship between transformational leadership and strategy implementation.
Conclusion
As many scholars posited, inefficient leadership is a very important obstacle of strategy implementation (Okumus, 2003; Dobni 2003; Miller, Hickson & Wilson, 2008; O'Reilly et.al, 2010). However, there is a key question, which leadership style could help organizations to implement strategies more effectively? To answer this question, we need numerous researches to analyze the effect of different leadership styles on strategy implementation and then, comparative studies to find out more effective leadership styles in different situations. This research is a novel piece of the puzzle of leadership style-strategy implementation since there is no systematic research on the relationship between transformational leadership and strategy implementation. By recognizing the facilitator role of transformational leadership in implementation of strategies, the managers can use this leadership style to strengthen the commitment toward strategies, fostering innovation capability, creating positive motivation among employees and building a more learning organization which share and disseminate experiences about strategy implementation among internal and external stakeholders.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Strategy Implementation
  • Leadership Style
  • Transformational Leadership
  • Organizational Learning
1-Ahmad, F., Abbas, T., Latif, S., & Rasheed, A. (2014). Impact of transformational leadership on employee motivation in telecommunication sector. Journal of Management Policies and Practices, 2(2), 11-25.

2-Bass, B.M., Avolio, B.J., Jung, D.I., & Berson, Y. (2003). Predicting unit performance by assessing transformational and transactional leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(2), 207-218

3-Berson, Y., & Avolio, B.J. (2004). Transformational leadership and the dissemination of organizational goals: A case study of a telecommunication firm. The Leadership Quarterly, 15(5), Pp. 625-646.

4-Carter, M.Z., Mossholder, K.W., Feild, H.S., & Armenakis, A.A. (2014). Transformational leadership, interactional justice, and organizational citizenship behavior: The effects of racial and gender dissimilarity between supervisors and subordinates. Group & Organization Management, 39(6), 691-719.

5-Crossan, M.M., Maurer, C.C., & White, R.E. (2011). Reflections on the 2009 AMR decade award: do we have a theory of organizational learning?. Academy of Management Review, 36(3), 446-460.

6-Dobni, B. (2003). Creating a strategy implementation environment. Business Horizons, 46(2), 43-46.

7-Elenkov, D.S., Judge, W., & Wright, P. (2005). Strategic leadership and executive innovation influence: an international multi‐cluster comparative study. Strategic Management Journal, 26(7), 665-682.

8-García-Morales, V.J., Jiménez-Barrionuevo, M.M., & Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, L. (2012). Transformational leadership influence on organizational performance through organizational learning and innovation. Journal of Business Research, 65(7), 1040-1050.

9-Goodwin, V.L., Wofford, J.C., & Whittington, J.L. (2001). A theoretical and empirical extension to the transformational leadership construct. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 22(7), 759-774.

10-Harrington, R.J. (2006). The moderating effects of size, manager tactics and involvement on strategy implementation in foodservice. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 25(3), 373-397.

11-Homburg, C., Krohmer, H., & Workman, J.P. (2004). A strategy implementation perspective of market orientation. Journal of Business Research, 57(12), 1331-1340.

12-Humphreys, J.H., & Einstein, W.O. (2003). Nothing new under the sun: Transformational leadership from a historical perspective. Management Decision, 41(1), 85-95.

13-Kellermanns, F.W., Walter, J., Floyd, S.W., Lechner, C. & Shaw, J.C. (2011). To agree or not to agree? A meta-analytical review of strategic consensus and organizational performance. Journal of Business Research, 64(2), 126-133.

14-Li, V., Mitchell, R., & Boyle, B. (2016). The divergent effects of transformational leadership on individual and team innovation. Group & Organization Management, 41(1), 66-97.

15-Mazloomi, N. & Jalali, S.H. (2012). Prioritizing obstacles affecting strategic plans implementation in Iranian pharmaceutical industry. Iranian Journal of Executive Management, 4(7), 125-148. (In Persian)

16-Mazloomi, N. & Jalali, S.H. (2014). Evaluation of the strategy implementation obstacles in tourism industry. Tourism Management Studies, 9(25), 1-26. (In Persian)

17-Menguc, B., Auh, S., & Shih, E. (2007). Transformational leadership and market orientation: Implications for the implementation of competitive strategies and business unit performance. Journal of Business Research, 60(4), 314-321.

18-Mihalache, O. R., Jansen, J. J., Van Den Bosch, F. A., & Volberda, H. W. (2012). Offshoring and firm innovation: The moderating role of top management team attributes. Strategic Management Journal, 33(13), 1480-1498.

19-Miller, S., Hickson, D., & Wilson, D. (2008). From strategy to action: involvement and influence in top level decisions. Long Range Planning, 41(6), 606-628.

20-Minarro-Viseras, E., Baines, T., & Sweeney, M. (2005). Key success factors when implementing strategic manufacturing initiatives. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 25(2), 151-179.

21-Moriano, J.A., Molero, F., Topa, G., & Mangin, J.P.L. (2014). The influence of transformational leadership and organizational identification on intrapreneurship. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 10(1), 103-119.

22-Okumus, F. (2003). A framework to implement strategies in organizations. Management Decision, 41(9), 871-882.

23-O'Reilly, C.A., Caldwell, D.F., Chatman, J.A., Lapiz, M., & Self, W. (2010). How leadership matters: The effects of leaders' alignment on strategy implementation. The Leadership Quarterly, 21(1), 104-113.

24-Pounder, J.S. (2003). Employing transformational leadership to enhance the quality of management development instruction. Journal of Management Development, 22(1), 6-13.

25-Rafferty, A.E., & Griffin, M.A. (2004). Dimensions of transformational leadership: Conceptual and empirical extensions. The Leadership Quarterly, 15(3), 329-354.

26-Saboe, K.N., Taing, M.U., Way, J.D., & Johnson, R.E. (2014). Examining the unique mediators that underlie the effects of different dimensions of transformational leadership. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 22(2), 175-186.

27-Shin, S.J., & Zhou, J. (2003). Transformational leadership, conservation, and creativity: Evidence from Korea. Academy of Management Journal, 46(6), 703-714.

28-Smith, B.D. (2009). Maybe I will, maybe I won't: what the connected perspectives of motivation theory and organizational commitment may contribute to our understanding of strategy implementation. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 17(6), 473-485.

29-Sun, P.Y., & Anderson, M.H. (2012). The importance of attributional complexity for transformational leadership studies. Journal of Management Studies, 49(6), 1001-1022.

30-Van Knippenberg, D., & Sitkin, S.B. (2013). A critical assessment of charismatic-transformational leadership research: Back to the drawing board?. The Academy of Management Annals, 7(1), 1-60.

31-Walumbwa, F.O., Orwa, B., Wang, P., & Lawler, J.J. (2005). Transformational leadership, organizational commitment, and job satisfaction: A comparative study of Kenyan and US financial firms. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 16(2), 235-256.

32-Wowak, A.J., Mannor, M.J., Arrfelt, M., & McNamara, G. (2016). Earthquake or glacier? How CEO charisma manifests in firm strategy over time. Strategic Management Journal, 37(3), 586-603.

33-Yukl, G. (2008). How leaders influence organizational effectiveness. The Leadership Quarterly, 19(6), 708-722.

34-Zhang, X.A., Cao, Q., & Tjosvold, D. (2011). Linking transformational leadership and team performance: A conflict management approach. Journal of Management Studies, 48(7), 1586-1611.