عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
The purpose of the present research is to determine the effect of intelligent leadership on the educational performance of the faculty members of the public universities of Zahedan city, Iran, with the mediating role of critical thinking. This is a descriptive-correlational study based on structural equation and the statistical population consists of all the faculty members of the public universities of Zahedan city. The sample size out of 666 people was calculated to be 120 based on Cochran's formula via stratified random sampling. For data collection, a (researcher made) intelligent leadership questionnaire, critical thinking questionnaire, and (standard) educational performance questionnaire were used. The content validity of the questionnaires was confirmed by experts and the construct validity was confirmed using factor analysis. The reliability values of the questionnaires were calculated to be 0.97, 0.93 and 0.99, respectively using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. For data analysis, the SPSS23 and PLS statistical software were used. Research findings showed that intelligent leadership with a path coefficient of (0.33) was effective on educational performance; and intelligent leadership with a path coefficient of (0.58) was effective on critical thinking; and critical thinking with a path coefficient of (0.28) was effective on educational performance.
Faculty members are of universities’ key elements largely contribute in outcomes of educational system. Since professors always communicate students, and regarding that much of the time students spend in school are at classes; hence, how the teachers reflect and perform may significantly influence students’ progress; and consequently, meet university objectives. In this regard, to achieve a proper perspective of the current situation and the issues universities may face in developed and developing countries, it is necessary to explore higher education system in detail and to determine effective components, elements, and factors contributing this domain. Thus, academic leaders, faculty members, thinking, and their performance are especially interested as the major effective factors of higher education system.
This is a descriptive- correlation study modeled based on structural equations model. Research statistical population included 666 faculty members of selected public universities of Zahedan city in 2016 (380 individuals from University of Sistan and Baluchestan and 286 individuals from Zahedan University of medical sciences). Research sample of 120 individuals (70 from University of Sistan and Baluchestan and 50 from Zahedan University of medical sciences) were randomly selected through stratified random sampling method using Cochran formula (1997). Data were collected through three questionnaires of intelligent leadership, critical thinking, and educational performance. Validity of the instrumentations was verified through content validity, and confirmatory factor analysis, as well using SPSS 23 and PLS.
Once covariance errors were removed and fitness factors were examined, factor analysis was confirmed; further, reliability of research instrumentations was also obtained larger than 0.07 using Cronbach’s alpha test, indicating high validity of the questionnaires.
Discussion and conclusion
In the present research, measurement model of intelligent leadership on educational performance by the mediating role of critical thinking and critical thinking model on educational performance were confirmed. Fitting research conceptual model, it was assumed that intelligent leadership as the latent variable directly influences critical thinking and educational performance of faculty members. According to research results, impact factors of 0.46, 0.60, and 0.34 were obtained for intelligent leadership on educational performance, and critical thinking, as well as critical thinking on educational performance, respectively. Therefore, the results are largely consistent with Nooralizade and Hajovand (2008) who identified three rational, emotional, and spiritual leadership components for intelligent leadership. It is also consistent with the results of Sydänmaanlakka (2003), Sydänmaanlakka (2008), McKown (2012), Guldenberg and Kontath (2013), and Mattone (2013). According to research results, it is stated that intelligent leadership may reduce the gap between faculty members and academic leaders; and consequently, may facilitate growing critical thinking, which in return influences the performance of faculty members.