واکاوی افتخار سازمانی: طراحی سنجه‌ای پژوهشی و اعتبارسنجی آن

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری دانشگاه تربیت مدرس ،تهران،ایران

2 استاد دانشگاه تربیت مدرس ،تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار دانشگاه تربیت مدرس ، تهران، ایران

4 استادیار دانشگاه تربیت مدرس ، تهران، ایران

چکیده

هدف این پژوهش، واکاوی افتخار سازمانی و طراحی سنجه‌ای پژوهشی برای آن است. در گام اول، با مرور ادبیات پژوهش، انجام مصاحبه‌های عمیق میدانی با ۳۰ نفر از صاحبنظران و استفاده از روش کدگذاری و مقوله‌بندی، سازه افتخار واکاوی گردید. در گام دوم، با طراحی پرسشنامه محقق ساخته و توزیع ۱۳۰عدد از آن در بین نمونه آماری، اعتبار سنجه افتخار از طریق بررسی ارتباط آن با تعهد سازمانی، بی تفاوتی سازمانی، رضایت شغلی و هویت سازمانی ارزیابی شد. این متغیرها به این دلیل انتخاب شده‌اند که در مطالعات مشابه خارجی بیشتر مورد استفاده قرار گرفته و ارتباط قویتری با مفهوم افتخار داشته و این سازه را بهتر تبیین می‌کنند. نتایج فرایند کدگذاری، مقوله‌بندی و تطبیق مستمر مصاحبه‌های بدست آمده نشان داد که افتخار سازمانی شامل شش بعد افتخار به سازمان، افتخار به واحد سازمانی، افتخار به شغل، افتخار به مدیر، افتخار به همکاران و افتخار به مشتریان است. نتایج آزمون همبستگی برای اعتبارسنجی سازه افتخار نشان داد که افتخار با تعهد سازمانی (با ضریب همبستگی ۳۱۱/۰)، رضایت شغلی (با ضریب همبستگی ۳۵۳/۰) و هویت سازمانی (با ضریب همبستگی ۴۴۶/۰) رابطه مثبت معنادار و با بی‌تفاوتی سازمانی (با ضریب همبستگی ۲۷۹/۰-) رابطه منفی معناداری دارد. با توجه به نتایج آزمون تحلیل مسیر، افتخار بیشترین تأثیر را به ترتیب بر هویت سازمانی، رضایت شغلی، تعهد سازمانی و بی‌تفاوتی سازمانی داشته است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Exploration of Organizational Pride: Designing and Validating Measure

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ali Nouri 1
  • Hassan Danaeefard 2
  • Ahmad Khaef-Elahi 3
  • lotfolla Forouzandeh 4
چکیده [English]

When it comes to motivating social behavior, pride may be the most important human emotion (Tracy & Robin, 2007). Pride in organization exhibits that employees are competence and positive from other people’s viewpoints. Organizational pride shows the specific employee’s perceptions and their experiences of organization. The concept of pride is the new & emergent construction in organizational behavior especially in employee attitude. When researchers want to study employee behavior via positive psychology (especially POB), must to consider organizational pride as a main factor in employee motivation and positive and prosocial behaviors. Employee pride positively influences the decision to stay with a particular company and negatively affects turnover intention (Appleberg, 2005). Within the business community, organizational leaders have been claiming that pride improves employee commitment and morale, and can drive business performance. In fact, in a book by Jon Katzenbach (2000) entitled, Peak Performance: Aligning the Hearts and Minds of Your Employees, pride was identified as a primary source of energy and emotional commitment in organizations.
Despite the plethora of scholarly research and corporate programs existing around commitment, satisfaction, and loyalty, many organizations are now talking about a relatively new construct—organizational pride. For example this statement is said by many organizational leaders that:  “The greatest motivator of all is pride”.
The expression of pride may communicate an individual’s success to others, thereby enhancing the individual’s social status; and the subjective experience of pride might reinforce the behaviors that generate proud feelings (Herald & Tomaka, 2002).
In the future, service companies’ success will be even more dependent on the ability to create and to sustain long-term customer relationships (Gouthier Rhein,2010). Since numerous services are generated through the interaction between service employees and customers, these companies’ long-term relationships highly depend on the company’s personnel (Bowen & Lawler 1992) and its corresponding service orientation towards the customer (Arnett et al. 2002). In fact, the company’s employees need to be motivated and prepared to engage in continuous improvement in order to demonstrate commitment to customer service (Peccei & Rosenthal 1997). A central driver of above-average employee motivation and a key differentiator from competition is employee pride (Katzenbach 2003a).
Even though several companies have already attributed a large degree of their sustained success to the high levels of their employee pride (Katzenbach& Santamaria 1999) the construct of “pride” is still a predominantly neglected factor in economic behavior .Many statements about pride can be characterized as being based more on intuition than grounded on empirical findings. Furthermore, pride seems to be too complex to be considered a single concept (Ekman, 2003)
So in this study, with exploring the construction of pride, it’s dimensions will be recognized and the designed it’s measurement. So the problem statement of this study is to: what is organizational pride and it’s dimensions?
Case study: This investigation has been conducted at Iranian offshore oil company. This case was chosen for two main reasons. First, this company has had numerous achievements and positive events during it’s history that suitable for pride analysis. Second, this company has many core competencies that necessary for pride expressions.
Materials and Methods: In this study, the mixed research design has been used and Data has been gathered at 2 step. At first step, the qualitative data obtained with depth interview with 30 persons in different industry. At second step, in according to the questionnaire that has been obtained from depth interview, data has been collected with 130 employees of Iranian offshore oil company. Factor analysis, content validity and Cronbach’s alpha were used for measuring of validity and reliability of variables. The coding process, constant comparison method, correlation test and path analysis has been used for the analysis of data.
Discussion and Results
To exploring the construction of organizational pride and designing and validating the measurement for it, we conducted the mix research design. The results of factor analysis, content validity and reliability test have been shown that all of the variables are valid and reliable. The findings of the coding process and constant comparison method indicated that pride has six dimension consisting of glory on organization, glory on job department, glory on job, glory on manager, glory on colleague and glory on customer. Furthermore, the expressions of these dimensions consisting of behavioral expressions, emotional expressions and attitudinal expressions were recognized. By conducting this step, the construction of pride was explored and by recognizing the expressions, the measurement of pride was designed. For validating the pride measurement, we applied the correlation design. The results of correlation test indicated that pride has a significant positive relation with organizational commitment (with correlation coefficient 0.311), job satisfaction (correlation coefficient 0.353) and organizational identity (correlation coefficient 0.446) and has a significant negative relation with organizational indifference (correlation coefficient -0.279). The findings of path analysis show that pride respectively have strong effect on organizational identity, job satisfaction, organizational commitment and organizational indifference.
Conclusion
As mentioned at introduction, pride has significant effects on employee commitment and turnover decision. Although this concept very important in scientific researches, but in studies that have been conducted in Iran, has been neglected. So this investigation is novel for different reasons. At first, for first time in Iran, with using the qualitative research, the construction of pride was explored. This work help to the Iranian managers to understanding the importance of pride and it’s effects. Second, with using the coding process, the measurement of pride was designed and it’s validity was examined by using the correlation research design. This work also is novel in Iran and any study in this area has been done until now. By recognizing the six dimensions of pride at Iranian offshore oil company, the managers of this company can design a comprehensive pride plan for their organization. Furthermore, for creating the pride culture in this organization, it’s managers can consider these pride expressions into the performance appraisal system of employees. 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • pride
  • organizational pride
  • positive psychology
  • emotional organizational pride
  • attitudinal organizational pride
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